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Tehran

Tehran

05/20/13

Geography and History

The provinces of Tehran and Alborz cover on area of 18,814 square kilometers and are located to the north of the central plateau of Iran. These provinces have common borders with the Mazandaran province from north, Qom province from south, Semnan province from east and Qazvin province from west. The metropolis of Tehran is not only the central city of the province, but is also the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran.Karaj is the most populated city which is near the capital of Iran. Since 2010 Karaj as the center of Alborz province became a new province and seprated from Tehran province.According to the latest records, the townships of the Tehran province includes Tehran, Damavand, Ray, Firouz Kooh, Shemiranat, Shahriyar, Varamin, Islam Shahr, Robat Karim and Pakdasht. The townships of the Alborz province includes Karaj , Sabojbolaq, Nazar Abad and Taleqan.The population density of Tehran and Alborz provinces in October 2006 were approximately 13.422 million of which about 91.34% resided is urban areas and 8.65% is the rural area.The highest point of the Tehran province is Damavand peak at an attitude of 5,678 m. and the lower most vicinity of the province being the plains of Varamin, 790 m. above sea level and located to the south-east of the province.Mountain ranges such as the Alborz span the north; the Savad Kooh and Firooz Kooh exhibitionountains are located in the north east; Lavasanat, Qarah Daq, Shemiranat, Hassan Abad and Namak Mountains are in the southern territory; Bibi Shahr Banoo and Alqadr are situated in the south east and the heights of Qasr-e-Firoozeh being located to the east of the province.

Climate

Environmentally speaking the climate of Tehran and Alborz provinces in the desert and southern territories is warm and dry, in the skirts of the mountains cold and semi -humid, and in the higher regions cold, experiencing long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range at an average of 28° – 30° C and the coldest months experience a 1° C temperature that is in December-January. Tehran city has moderate winters and hot summers. North of which and Shemiranat experience a moderate climate in summers. The average annual rainfall is approximately 400 mm., the maximum being during the winter season. Generally speaking, throughout spring, summer and even autumn seasons, regions such as the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains, specially in the mountain, valley, river and lake regions formed behind the great dams of Amir Kabir, Latiyan and Lar along with natural lakes of Jaban and Tarr have considerable recreational values and provide further facilities in this regard. More over due to excessive snowfall in the northern areas of the province during the winter season, the southern slopes of the Alborz form an excellent environment for winter sports specially skiing.

History and Culture

Present Tehran is considered to be one of the largest and most populated cities of the world. It has gone through plenty of upheavals in history. Tehran which was no more than a village before is now a metropolis with a population density of more than 8 million citizens. It was selected as the Capital of Iran in 1200 AH. and since then has been the political, cultural, economical and commercial nucleus of the country. During the past 200 years it has been witness to the rise of reputed scholars, writers, poets and artists, both those who have lived here and those who are currently inhabiting this city which has also helped to develop today’s metropolis into a seat of culture.

Tehran And Alborz Provinces Townships

Damavand, Karaj, Ray, Shemiranat, Tehran, Varamin.

Damavand

The old city of Damavand is located to the east of Tehran. When Ray flourished, Damavand also prospered. But unfortunately due its proximity to the Mount Damavand, earthquakes subjected a heavy damage to this city. During the era of the Ottoman Caliphate, this city came under the invasion of the Muslims. The most important relics of this city belong to Saljuqian era.

Karaj

Karaj is the capital of the Alborz province (new province). This township is situated to the west of Tehran. The stony fire-temple of Takht-e-Rostam belong to Parthians and Sassanian eras, as well as the Soleimanieh palace (which is presently the University of Agriculture), the mausolum of Shahzadeh Soleiman, Imamzadeh Rahman and Zeid Palang Abad-e-Eshtehard are remnants of this region.

Ray

Ray is one of the oldest cities of Iran. About 300 BC, one of the successors of Alexander (Solukus) named Ray as “Oriyoos”. Thereafter the Parthians named the same “Arsakia” and “Arshakiyeh”. During the reign of the Sassanids ‘Ray’ found its current name.In the Islamic era this city was the ruling center of ‘Bani Omayeh’ clan and during the Mongol and Teimoorian conquests claimed to be an area of invasion for several times. Ancient relics of this city which are mentioned in this text indicate the historical antiquity of Ray.

Shemiranat

Shemiranat is located to the north of Tehran and has many sight-seeing places as well as pilgrimage sites. Some of which are summer residing quarters of the slopes of Alborz Mountains as well as mausoleum of Imamzadeh Qasem which is a monument of the 10th century AH.

Tehran  

Tehran was one of the villages of Ray city in the Safavid era. At the time of Mongol conquests and destruction of Ray, a large group of people migrated to Tehran village and brought about the development and flourishment of this place. In the Safavid period, Shah Tahmasb Safavid selected this city as capital and was responsible for casting special attention on this region. It was during his reign that 114 towers were constructed (in keeping with the 114 versus of the Qoran, holy book of the Muslims) and under each tower one verse from the Holy Book was inscribed. The four famous gateways to Tehran namely, Shemiran, Qazvin, Doolab and Hazrat Abdol Azim were constructed during this period. Even in Qajar period in 1166 AH. during the reign of Mohammad Khan Qajar, Tehran was proclaimed the official capital of Iran and many monuments have been constructed then.During the reign of Nasereddin Shah the plan of the city was designed by Mirza Yusof Mostowfi-ol-Mamalek. There after during the Pahlavi era, it was re-newed and farther developed and with the continuation of progress after the revolution, the city of Tehran at present is the capital and considered to be the largest city of Iran and also ranks as one of the largest cities of the world.

Varamin  

After the destruction of Ray by the Mongols and Teimoorians, a group of the inhabitants migrated to a neighboring area known as Varamin. Varamin is considered to be one of the historical cities of Iran. The mausoleum of Imamzadeh Yahya, a relic of the 8th century AH. and the Jame’ Mosque, a relic of the Eilkhani Abu Saeed are located here.

Historical Monuments

Ala Edin Tower, Varamin

This tower with 17 m. height is located to the north of the Varamin Jame’ Mosque. It was constructed in 680 AH. The architecture of tower is combination of Monqol’s and those of “Aq Qoyonloo” and “Qarah Qoyonloo” architectures.

 

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Toqrol Tower, Ray

The tower is in the vicinity of Ray and probably it is the resting abode of Toqrol I of the Saljuqi Dynasty. This tower is in the form of panels and is 20 m. in height. In 1300 AH. it had gone under repair, but unfortunately most of its focal elements such as engravings and inscriptions have been destroyed. There is a stone slab on which the date of repair has been noted.

 

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Azadi Square, Tehran

This structure was constructed in the year 1350 (1971), during the reign of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in west of Tehran (at the entrance to Tehran – Karaj special Road) on a piece of land with an area of 50,000 sq. m. At the same time a museum had also been constructed in the same building. The basement of the tower encompasses 400 sq. m. and the tower is 45 m. high from ground level.

 

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Hassan Abad Square, Tehran

Mirza Yusof Aashtiani, the Grand Chancellor of Naseredin Shah constructed this square in the name of his son Mirza Hassan Mostowfi-ol-Mamalek. From 1303 till 1312 AH. four buildings were constructed in four sides of the square in adaptation to Paladio, the famous Italian Architect of the Renaissance epoch. One of these buildings were demolished and in the year 1345 AH, a multi storeyed building of the National Bank has been erected there. Due to construction of the underground metro network, the central square has also been demolished.

 

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National Garden (Baq-e-Melli) Gateway, Tehran

In the early 1330 AH, a tall gate was erected at the entrance to the former vicinity known as Maidan-e-Mashk.

 

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National Garden (Baq-e-Melli) Gateway

 

Thereafter a large portion of these lands came under national garden, therefore called Baq-e-Melli (National Garden). Presently this area is in the midst of Centeral Post Office of Tehran, Police Headquarter office and the registration office.

 

 

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National Garden (Baq-e-Melli) Gateway

 

Other historical remnants in the province are as follows: Darvazeh Nou or (Darvazeh Mohammadiyeh) in Tehran, Tappeh Meel on the Meel Road (Varamin), (Tappeh means hillock), Tappeh Kahrizak, Tappeh Komail and Khallariz in Ray, Tappeh Hissarak and Tappeh Qalian in Lavasan, Tappeh Keymir, Tappeh Sarqal’eh in Suhanak, Tappeh and a cemetry of Qeytariyeh.We may point out other old squares of Tehran such as, Mohammadiyeh Square, Asb Davani Square and Sabz-e-Maydan Square.

 

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Mohammadiyeh Gate, Tehran

 

Baq-e-Ferdows Edifice (Tajrish), Shemiranat

This edifice due to its glorifying beauty was known as Baq-e-Ferdows or Garden of Paradise. It was constructed by Haj Mirza Aqasi during the reign of Mohammad Shah Qajar in 1264 AH. This large three storeyed edifice is approximately 20,000 sq. m. in area, with its gable-roof, doors and windows made of wood and adorned with colorful glasses.

 

 

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Golestan Palace, Tehran

This palace was constructed in the year 1268 AH. under the order of Naseredin Shah. This palace is comprised of the entrance along with various pavillions, such as mirror, diamonds, ivory and crystal pavillions as well as Salam pavillion in which the famous ‘Takht-e-Tavoos’ or ‘the Peacock Throne’ that Nader Shah took as ransom from India in his conquest in 1739, is placed. This throne has seven jewelled stands with two steps. On its back there is a statue of a dragon. It has a delicate back seat which is ornamented by beautiful inscriptions.

 

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Marmar (Marble) Palace, Tehran

This palace was built during the years 1934 -1937 AD. with a combination of eastern and western architecture. Hossein Lorzadeh was the architect and Ostad Yazdi was responsible for the tile-works. Mohammad Hossein Sani’ Khatam and Hossein Taherzadeh also co-operated in its construction.

Marvy Edifice and School, Tehran

The Fakhriyeh or Marvy School was constructed in 13th century AH. by Fakhrodowleh by the orders of Fathali Shah Qajar. This edifice is composed of a tall gate way, courtyard, chambers and several porticos adorned with sun baked brick work.

Saheb Qaranieh Palace, Tehran

This Place was constructed during the reign of Fathali Shah, amidst one of the palaces of Niyavaran aggregate located to the north-east of Tehran. Hauz-Khaneh, Korsi-Khaneh, Jahan Nama and Mirror pavillions, are worth mentioning sections which are adorned with beautiful and valuable paintings and articles.

Saltanat Abad Palace, Tehran

This two-storeyed palace was built under the orders of Naseredin Shah in the village of Rostam Abad in the year (1305 AH). This palace has a ‘Hoze-Khaneh’ in the center (a covered area with a pool). The walls and rooms under the ‘howz-Khaneh’ are adorned with artistic plaster work . A golden globe or ball which was a symbol for royalty has been mounted on the highest portion of the gable-roof of the place.

Shamsol Emareh Edifice, Tehran

This palace was built in the year 1284 AH. under the orders of Naseredin Shah by Mo’ayerol Mamalek. Shamsol Emareh is a tall edifice with two towers which has been recently repaired and renewed.

Sorkheh Hesar (Ruby) Palace, Tehran

This palace also known as the Yaqoot or Ruby palace was built by Naseredin Shah at the end of the (13th century). This palace comprised of two parts, named as”Kushk-e-Birouni” and “Haram Khaneh” which in overall consisted of 200 rooms. In addition to above it also had a caravansary, bath and a military quarter that unfortunately at present nothing is left from them.

Takht-e-Marmar (Takht-e-Soleiman) Edifice, Tehran

This edifice was constructed under the orders of Fathali Shah Qajar in the year 1220 AH. in a form of a throne as a platform with long walls and 65 large and small slabs of marble stones which is placed at the center of main portico of the palace. The height of this throne from the base of portico is one meter and from four sides it is erected on the shoulders of six angels and three demons and eleven helicoid columns. On either sides of the steps walls, with two lion figures are encarved. This edifice is unique and spectacular in architecture and design.

Tehran Association for Cultural Society Building, Tehran

This old building in past was one of the houses of Hossein Pasha Khan (known as Amir Bahador), the court minister of Mozaffaredin Shah. This edifice with an area of 3,000 sq. m. has a large Mirror pavillion and a hall where speeches were made. This building is located in Vali-e-Asr Avenue near Amir Bahador Bridge. Other Palaces and Edifices inTehran province are: The Baharestan Palace, the‘ Howz-Khaneh’of the old garden of Negarestan, the ‘Darolfonoon’ Edifice and ‘Negarestan‘ Edifice in Tehran.

 

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Niavaran Palace

 

Sepahsalar (Shahid Motahari ) Mosque and School, Tehran

This relic of the 13th century AH. is located in Mostafa Khomeini Avenue. The founders of this mosque were Haj Mirza Hassan Khan Sepahsalar (Chancellor of Naseradin Shah Qajar) and his brother Moshirodoleh. The school is 62m. in length and 61 m. in width and has 60 chambers. The dome is 37 m. high. The structure comprises of chambers, porticos, corridors, a two storeyed building, a large dome, minarets , palace for nocturnal prayers (Shabestan), a reputable library and a gateway.

 

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Imam Jomeh House, Tehran

Imam Jomeh house is one of the magnificent buildings of second half of 13th century AH. and was used to be the residence of ‘Imam Jomeh’ or the Friday Praying Leader, prior to Islamic Revolution. This building comprised of various halls and chambers adorned with beautiful plaster moldings.

 

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Moshirodolleh House, Tehran

This old structure is located between Manoochehri st. and Jomhoorieh Islami Ave., in Peer Nia Street (Lalehzar) and belonged to Hassan Peer Nia (Moshirodoleh) one of the prominent personalities during the Qajar era. The building is in three storeys with a simple facade. Even internally the building has been decorated on simple lines. Except for plaster works of the northern portico and tile works of basement chambers which are worth mentioning. These are of baked bricks, large in size, having portraits of mythological characters engraved on them. At present the building belongs to the Medical Faculty of Tehran University.

Vosooqodoleh House, Tehran

The construction of this building was completed in the year 1253 AH. (13th century) and comprises of several rooms and halls beautifully adorned with plaster-works.

 

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Other old houses in Tehran are as follows: Ehsani House (Amir Kabir Avenue), Pamenar (Bahaodolleh Alley.), Bazaar-e-Mesgarha House (Mostafa Khomeini Ave.), The Safavid House (Mostafa Khomeini Ave.), Mondella House (Ferdowsi Ave.), Qavam-ol-Saltaneh House (Si-ye-tir St.) which is at present turned into the Aabguineh Museum’, Abol Qasem Tafseeli House (Amir Kabir Ave., opposite Ekbatan), Hedayat House (Hedayat Ave.), Ostad Hossein Behzad House (Behzad Ave.), Klara Abcar House ( Jomhoori Ave.), ‘Serah-e-Amin Huzoor’ House (Qajar era), Alaodolleh House (Qajar reign) (Ferdowsi Ave.) , Nasrodolleh House (Qajar reign) in ( Sar Cheshmeh), Mostowfi-ol-Mamalek House (Qajar period) located in (Boozarjomehri Ave.)

 

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Amir Bahador House, Tehran

 

Religious Monuments

Aqa Mausoleum, Tehran

This structure was constructed in 13th century AH. and is the resting abode of Seyed Abdol Qasem Imami ( The Friday Prayer Leader of Tehran) during during the Qajar era.

 

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Bibi Shahr Banoo Tomb, Ray

This enameled or glazed dome was the resting place of the mother of Hazrat Sajad (AS) the daughter of Yazdgerd Sassani III. It is located in the southern skirts of the Ray mountains, reputedly known as the mountain of Bibi Shahr Banoo. This dome is 33m. high and 22m. in width and is surrounded by stone walls. The dome is a remnant from the Daylamite period.

Bibi Zobeideh Mausoleum, Ray

This mausoleum was constructed in the 9th century AH. There is a tablet affixed here which narrates the journey of Bibi Shahrbanu and her daughter Zobeideh Khatoon to the city of Karbala.

Hazrat Abdol Azim Shrine, Ray

Hazrat Abdol Azim embraces one of the important and largest places of pilgrimage for Shiite sect round the globe. This religious site is located in Ray. Hazrat Abdol Azim (AS) is one of the offspring of Imam Hassan (PBUH), who was martyred in the 3rd century AH. The tombs of Imamzadeh Hamzeh (brother of Imam Reza), Imamzadeh Taher (the offspring of Imam Sajad), the tombs of a few monarchs of the Qajar era, and tombs of a few of clergies are situated here. This structure dates back to 848 AH.

 

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Imam Khomeini Shrine, Tehran

The mausoleum of Imam Khomeini (RA), the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran is situated in the south of Tehran city. There are four towers in four sides of the mausoleum which are 91 m. in height in memorandom of Imam Khomeini’s age.Seventy-two tulips adorn and surround the dome symbolising the seventy-two persons who fought with his holiness Imam Hossein (AS) in Karbala and were martyred. The Haram has five entrances, (again symbolic to the Islamic theology related to the prophet Mohammad (PBUH) and the immediate members of his household). There are many service facilities around the mausoleum to respond the needs of pilgrims and visitors to this site.

 

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Imamzadeh Davood, Tehran

This Imamzadeh is the tomb of Davood-ebne Emad, one of the grandsons of Hazrat Zeinolabedin . The mausoleum is located in a mountainous region north west of Tehran drawing hordes of pilgrims to the site.

 

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Seyed Esmaeil Mausoleum, Tehran

This mausoleum is situated in Chaleh Maidan which is between Boozarjomehr and Molavi Streets. The current structure of mausoleum belongs to the reign of Mohammad Shah. In the upper portion of the grave is an old, beautifully wooden carved door with a length of 162 cm. and a breadth of 66 cm. The oldest historical relic here is an inscription with “Naskh” script dated back to 886 AH. relative to the Aq-Qoyonloo period.

 

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Sheikh Shebli Mausoleum and Tower, Damavand

This Tower is to the east of Damavand city. Its structure is conical in shape and made of a mixture of limestone and brick and is 250 years old.

 

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Other mausoleum and Imamzadehs are : Imamzadeh Zeydeh, Seyed Vali, Imamzadeh Seyed Al Haq, Imamzadeh Hassan, Chehel Tan, Imamzadeh Mohammad, Imamzadeh Ruhollah-ebne-Moosa Kazem, Imamadeh Saleh, Imamzadeh Qasem, Imamzadeh Zeyn Ali and Ein Ali, Imamzadeh Abdollah, Safi Ali Shah Mausoleum, Sheikh Hadi Najm Abadi Mausoleum and Sardar Firooz Koohi Mausoleum in Tehran.The mausoleum of Shahzadeh Hossein and the tomb of Kowkabodin in Varamin. Mausoleum of Immzadeh Hashem in the Haraz Road and mausoleum of Imamzadeh Hadi in Ray.

 

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Niavaran Hosseinieh, Tehran

 

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Saqa Khaneh, Tehran

 

Imam Khomeini (Soltani) Mosque, Tehran

This mosque is located at the end of Naser Khosrow avenue near the Tehran Bazaar. the Shah or Sultani Mosque dates back to the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar and during the reign of Naseredin Shah the two current minarets were added to the structure. This mosque proves to be a great piece of architecture and beauty due its vast courtyard, beautiful Shabestans (or nocturnal areas), the giant tile worked dome and interesting arches and entrances.

 

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Rajab Ali Mosque, Tehran

This ancient mosque is located in Boozarjomehri Avenue and in “Darkhangah” sector. The mosque has a vast courtyard with a Shabestan both for summer and winter nocturnal prayers. The portico of school as well as the old Shabestan of the mosque are adorned with beautiful tile-works of the Qajar period.
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Saljuqi Jomeh Mosque and Aggregate, Damavand

This mosque is located in the district of Damavand and has gone under repair several times. The only remnant of this mosque is a simple minaret erected on a square brick pillar.

 

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Ornaments of Saljuqi Jomeh Mosque and Aggregate

 

Varamin Jame’ Mosque, Varamin

This mosque is one of the oldest buildings of Varamin city. Its construction began during the reign of’ Sultan Mohammad Khodabaneh and was completed during his son’s rule Sultan Abu Sa’eed. This building consists of a Shabestan, portico, large brick dome, the structure beside shabestan and ten small arches along with one large arch in the middle.

 

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Other old mosques that can be mentioned are : Qanbar Ali Khan Mosque, the Moshir-ol-Saltaneh Mosque, the Seyed Azizollah Mosque and the mosque and school of Sheikh Abdol Hossein.

 

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Sheikh Abdol Hossein Mosque, Tehran

 

Natural Attractions

Ali (Cheshmeh Ali) Spring, Ray

The civilization of this area dates back to the 4 millennium BC. This spring is in north of Ebne Babvaih and to the west of cement factory of Ray. Overlooking the said spring is a relatively large stone tablet on which the profile of Fathali Shah and a few Qajar princes have been engraved.

 

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Lar Dam Lake, Lar, Tehran

This lake is at a distance of 84 km from Tehran and due to its proximity to the Damavand Peak experiences a cool and pleasant climate as well as beautiful landscapes. The lake provides the scope for water sports such as swimming and skiing.

 

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Taromamaj Lake, Damavand

The Taromamaj Lake lies between the two mountain ranges of Garah Daq in the north and Zarin Kooh in the south, and is located at about 113 km from Tehran. These lakes are in the mountains at an attitude of 2,500 m. Their sources are from the rivers flowing from north. The climate of the region is of mountainous. A beautiful landscape of the region provides a suitable aqua-recreational area and sports such as canoeing and swimming along with mountaineering on the two peaks mentioned above.

 

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Damavand Summit, Damavand  

 

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This peak with an attitude of 5,678 m. is located 75 km south east of Tehran. Besides the natural beauty of Mount Damavand, the Esk and Gol-e-Zard Caves are also placed in the ascending route to Plure. Besides these, other attractive sight-seeing areas of the region is the thermal spring of Larijan, the vicinity of Vararoo with 8 m. of snow in the winter season, and the Lar Lake, are worth mentioning.

 

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Tochal Summit, Shemiranat

The southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains is called Touchal, and is considered to be the main and famous vicinity for mountaineers and sportsmen of Tehran. Various shelters running from east to west are Kolak Chal, Sherwin, Sheer Palla, Touchal, Espeed Kamar and Palang Chal. The ascending toute in order to gain access to the Kolak Chal peak with an attitude of 3,350 m. is through the routes of Jamshidiyeh, Golab Darreh, Baq-e-Afshar and Vazbad Valley.The shelter of Sheer Palla which is relatively equipped, provides facilities for a nights stay. After which there is a 3 hours distance to the Tochal peak. This shelter is equipped with 150 beds for accommodation, a canteen, pipeline water and electricity. The route to the Palang Chal shelter is from Darakeh and it takes 5 hours for ascending in summer. The latter (shelter) provides 70 beds for accommodation.

 

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Dizin Ski Slope, Karaj

Standing at an attitude of 3,800 m. above sea-level in the Chaloos road, it is at a distance of 60 km from Tehran. This vicinity offers caoching facilities as well as tennis courtyards, volleyball grounds, a park for children, slope for skiing on turf, some altitudes for mountain climbing and walking as well as riding and some routes for cycling. The region has six restaurants.

 

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Tehran Attitude

 

Shemshak Ski Slope, Shemiranat

This slope which is 3000 m. in length is situated 3,600 m. above sea level, and located 58 km north-east of Tehran. The suitable skiing season begins around the third week of December lasting till late April. This slope has two rest houses.

Tochal Slope, Tehran

This slope being 3,500 m. above sea-level is located in the fifth station of Tochal Tele Cabin. At the end of this station there are also many restaurants and resting facilities.

Culture and Art

Azadi Museum, Tehran

This collection is within the tower of Azadi Square. There are different articles belong to era BC, Achaemenian, Parthian or even the Sassanian periods, as well as Islamic era. These pieces are earthenware articles, admirable metal vessels, valuable paintings and carpets.

 

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Contemporary Arts Museum, Tehran

This museum was inaugurated in the year 1977. It is located in North Kargar Avenue, adjoining the Laleh Park. This three storeyed museum has 9 art galleries displaying the affects of many reputed foreign artists. It includes a library and an audio-visual section. In the statue garden of the museum, a collection of statues and pieces of art works, as well as marvelous creations of contemporary foreign and Iranian sculptures can be observed.

 

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Iran Carpet Museum, Tehran

This beautifully architectured structure, with the carpet shaped facade is located north west of Laleh Park. The display area covers 3,400 sq. m. and consists of two halls exhibiting carpets and Kilims. It was inaugurated in 1977. Its library is enriched with 3500 books. The collection of carpet museum comprises of samples of Iranian carpets from the 9th century AH. up to this date. About 135 master pieces of Iranian carpets are displayed in the ground floor. The art of carpet weaving in Iran, considering the 2500 year old ‘Pazirik’ which was discovered in southern Siberia in the year 1949, dates back to pre-Achaemenian period.

 

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Iran Decoration Arts Museum, Tehran

 

 

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The said museum is founded in the year 1959.

 

This museum is in four storeys exhibiting the following:
The ground floor displays a beautiful collection of inlaid and other fine handicrafts. Articles adorned with inlaid in the form of tables, chairs and show cases can be observed here.
The first floor exhibits traditional weaves and needle work. For example, a variety of brocades, velvets, ‘Termeh’ or Cashmere, block printed textiles, a variety of rugs, Kilims (or a coarse type of carpet), Jajims or a loosely woven woolen carpets, and number of needle work pieces are on display.The second floor comprises of five sections relative to Khatam Kari, Monabat, Laki (inlaid and lacquer work), metal and glass works. An array of mirrors, frames, boxes, pen-cases, jewelries etc. from the (12th-14th centuries AH) as well as a variety of glass ware from the pre-Islamic era till the 14th century AH is on demonstration here.
The third floor consists of miniature and paintings from the various school of art such as Tabriz, Shiraz, Esfahan and Qazvin. Pages from reputed books such as Ajayeb-ol-Makhlooqat, Khosrow and Shirin (Nezami), Khavaran Nameh (ebne Hesam) and Shahnameh (Ferdowsi) are on display on this floor.

 

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Iran National (Bastan) Museum, Tehran

This National Museum also known as ‘Iran Bastan Museum, covers an area of 2,744 sq. m. and is the first scientific museum of Iran which exhibits relics from the 6th millennium BC till the Islamic era. It was constructed in the year 1935 – 11937. This two storeyed museum comprises of halls for speeches, exhibition and a library,etc.

 

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In first floor of museum pre-historical and historical relics are displayed. The second floor contains remnants of the Islamic era. The said museum was closed for basic repairs till the year 1987. At the same year it was inaugurated as “National Museum of Iran”. The most valuable pieces displayed here are Qorans from the 3rd-13th century AH, a collection of 61 gold coins from the Samanid and Al-e-Buyeh eras as well as a collection of silver coins belong to the Samanid, Al-e-Buyeh and Qaznavi periods etc.

 

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2 Earthenware Pots of Deilaman

 

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Gold Marlik Goblet (Late 2nd Mill B.C)

 

This museum has a collection of books and publications in various languages, in the fields of Iranian art, archeology, history and also literature relative to the neighboring countries.

Malek Library and Museum, Tehran

This museum covers an area of 1000 sq. m. and comprises of halls, library, micro-films room, a reading room and computer services center. This library consists of 40,000 books and its management is governed by Astan-e-Qods Razavi. The Malek Museum is located in the vicinity of Baq-e-Melli and to the south of the Foreign Ministry. Collections such as silk and woolen carpets of the Qajar period, gold and silver coins form the Achaemenian period upto Qajar era, wooden pen case, chairs, tables and paintings from the Safavid era upto Qajar period, different scripts, stamps and albums can also be observed here.

 

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National Arts Museum, Tehran

The facade of museum is adorned with tile works. It has a large wooden door with a network of glass panes. The wooden and carved planets as well as the velvet curtains are all the works of the artists employed by the museum. The relics of this museum can be pointed as follows: Miniatures in the style of the 10th century which has been painted recently. Each Miniature displays various artistic affects such as frame works, inlaid works,embossment works as well as gilded work.The statue of Haj Moqbel (Neyzan-e-Siyah-e-del Zendeh) (the black and hearty flute player), the masterpiece of Abol Hassan Khan Sediqi, apprentice of Kamal-ol-Molk. a tableau with a tile-work background relative to 40 years ago, besides many other pieces of works of art.

 

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Reza Abbasi Museum, Tehran

This museum has been named after the famous artist (painter) and calligrapher of the Safavid era and consists of two halls:
Pre-Islamic Hall: The remnants of this hall are relative to two reputed cycles of pre-historic and historical periods. These relics being ’admiralty metal’ (of Lurestan) and in these halls exhibits of the Achaemenian , Parthian and Sassanian eras are on display.
Islamic Arts Hall: Relics in this hall are earthenware vessels, metal articles, architectural elements, jewelry, and textiles from the Saljuqi, Teimoori and the Safavid eras. Articles such as book covers and pen cases from the Qajar period can also be noted among them.Valuable paintings from the Islamic period and samples of different schools of painting such as Shiraz, Tabriz, Herat, a page from the ‘Shah Nameh’ “Hotoon” and the art of gilding are displayed here. Even printed works of outsiders regarding their impression about Iran and miniatures have been exhibited here. The Reza Abbasi Museum also has a library with approximately 6,000 books and many old Farsi news papers and publication materials.

 

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Sa’d Abad Palace Museum, Tehran

The aggregate of Sa’d Abad is comprised of about 14 palaces located in the northern most region of Tehran, and enjoys an extremely pleasant climate. Situated in an area of 400 hectares, this aggregate is surrounded by about 180 hectares of natural forests, springs, gardens, greenhouse and avenues covered by trees and flowers. Each of these palaces covered large areas and along with recreational facilities such as pools, lagoons, playgrounds and gardens used to house the immediate family members of the shah.

 

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Sabz (Shahvand Palace) Museum, Tehran

This palace was constructed by Reza Khan in 1927 to the north west of Darband on the hillock of Sa’d Abad. This palace has a mirror pavilion, an entertainment area, a dinning room, bed room and an office room. The facade of this palace is ornamented with green stones. The valuable carpets within are masterpieces of reputed Iranian carpet weavers. Most of the decorative articles of the palace had been brought from Europe in the year 1974-75.

 

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Green Palace Museum

 

The following are other museums of the province: Janbazan of the Islamic revolution Museum, Majlis-e-Shorai-e-Islami (Parliament) Museum or Senate Museum, Zoology Museum, Post Museum, ‘Aabguineh’ Museum, Behzad Museum, anthropology Museum, the Prof. Hessabi Museum, Saba Museum, Abkar Museum, Coin Museum, ‘ Shohada’ Museum, Geological Museum, Air force Museum, carpet Museum of Rassam Arabzadeh, Art Galleries of Sepheri, Mehr, Sabz Ali Zadeh, Sadr, classic, Golestan and….

 

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Abgineh (Glass) Museum, Tehran

 

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Agricultural College Museum, Karaj

 

Universities

The Governmental universities in Tehran province

Shariaty Technical College, Allameh Tabatabaii University, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Alzahra University, Shamsipour Technical College, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Farabi Institute of Virtual Higher Education, Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Imam Hossein University, Imam Sadeq University (ISU), Iran University of Medical Sciences, K.N.Toosi University of Technology, Shahed University, Shahid Beheshti University, Sharif University of Technology, Tarbiat Modarres University (Professor Training University), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Moaalem University, University of The Arts, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, University of Emam Reza, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Hadith College of Tehran, Imam Ali University for Army Officers, Comprehensive University of Technology, Tehran University of Applied Science and Technology, Tehran College of Environment, Bagher Aloloum University, International University of Iran, Iran College of Tele-communications, Medical University for the Islamic Republic of Iran’s Army, NAJA University of Police, School of Economic Affairs (SEA), School of International Relations, Shahed University of Medical Sciences, Shahid Sattari University of Aeronautical Engineering, University of Islamic Sects, The Research Institute of The Petroleum Industry, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, Power and Water Institute of Technology(PWIT), Payame Noor University.

The Islamic Azad universities in Tehran province

Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Science and Research, Islamic Azad University of Pishva, Islamic Azad University of Islamshahr, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Islamic Azad University of Damavand, Islamic Azad University of Roodehen, Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University of Tehran-North, Islamic Azad University of Tehran-South, Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Central, Islamic Azad University of Tehran-Region one.