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Esfahan

Esfahan

05/3/13

Geography and History

The province of Esfahan covers an area of approximately 107,029 square kilometers and is situated in the center of Iran. To its north, stand the Markazi (Central) Province and the provinces of Qom and Semnan. In the south, it is within the limits of the provinces of Fars, Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad. Eastwards, it is in the neighborhood of the provinces of Khorassan and Yazd. Whereas, in the west it has common borders with the provinces of Lurestan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari. The city of Esfahan is the provincial capital; and the townships of this province are as follows: Aran, Bidgol, Ardestan, Esfahan, Barkhovar and Meymeh, Khomeini Shahr, Khansar, Semirom, Shahr-e-Hana, Faridan, Fereidune Shahr, Falavarjan, Kashan, Golpayegan, Lanjan, Mobarakeh, Naein, Najaf Abad, Shahreza and Natanz. According to the census in the year 2006, the population of the province rated at 4.56 million, of which approximately 83.3 % were urban dwellers and 16.7 % resided in the rural areas.

Climate

The province of Esfahan experiences a moderate and dry climate on the whole, ranging between 40.6° C (being the maximum on a hot summers day), and the minimum being 10.6° C on a cold day in the winter season. The average annual temperature has been recorded as 16.7° C. and the annual rainfall on an average has been reported as 116.9 millimeters. The city of Esfahan experiences an excellent climate, with four distinct seasons that are apparent.

History and Culture

Historians have come to record Espahan, Sepahan or Esfahan as a defense and military base. The security and protection of which was guaranteed by the increase of the number of castles, thereby, promoting the protection of the residents of the cities. These historical castles are Atashgah, Sarooyieh, Tabarok, Kohan Dej, Gard Dej etc. to name a few. The plain of Esfahan which is situated amidst the wilderness and the arid hills of central Iran from one side, and the importance of its position in relation to the extensive central plateau of the country, plays a vital part in its connection with the historical and archaic past of Iran. Esfahan province encompasses various sects. The majority of the people in the province are Fars, but Bakhtiaris, Armenians, Hebrews and to a certain extent Azari or Turks are also residents of this province.The official language of the province is Farsi or the Persian, though the minorities abide by their own language such as Hebrew, Turkish or Lori. Esfahan province is noted for its reputed personalities such as writers, poets and other imminent figures who have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.

Esfahan  Province Townships

Ardestan, Esfahan, Falavarjan, Faridan (Daran), Fereidune Shahr, Golpayegan, Kashan, Khansar, Khomeini Shahr, Naein, Najaf Abad, Natanz, Shahreza (Qomsheh) Semirom.

Ardestan 

This township is within the limits of the province of Semnan in the north, to its south is Esfahan, whereas, in the east and west are Naein, Natanz and Kashan respectively. The erection of this township is associated to Saam the father of the athletic hero Rostam. The word Ardestan is a distorted version of the word ‘Argdastan’. The native structural facet of this township and its famous and historical Jame’ mosque, a remnant of the Saljuqi era can be said to be a place of interest.

Esfahan 

This township which is in a north-south position, segregates the townships of the province into two eastern and western portions. To its north is the Markazi (Central) Province and to the south is in the neighborhood of the province of Fars. In its eastern direction, are the townships of Naein, Ardestan, Natanz and Kashan, and to the west are the townships of Golpayegan, Najaf Abad, Khomeini Shahr, Falavarjan and Shahreza. Its center is the city of Esfahan.This city was the capital in the Parthian era, and in the Sassanide period came under the influence of the seven large influential families of Iran or the Espoharan. On the advent of Islam, till the early 4th century AH, it was under the jurisdiction of the Arabs, and was favored by Mansur one of the Abbasside Caliphs during his rule. In the year 319 AH, Mardavij Ziyari selected Esfahan as the capital and so too in the year 327 AH. when Rokneddin Deylami chose the same as the capital city during his rule. But in the year 443 AH. Togrol Saljuqi proved victorious here, and this was the cause of various erections such as mosques, buildings and palatial mansions in Esfahan. However, in the year 639 AH, Esfahan was invaded by the Mongols, and after their drawback the city flourished again. Only to witness severe damages during the assault of Teimoor the lame.
Shah Abbas Safavid was responsible for returning Esfahan to its former glory in the year 1000 AH. when this city was appointed as his capital. His successors were liable for the construction of palaces, and gardens of Sa’dat Abad and Farah Abad. After the decline of the Safavid dynasty and the fall of Esfahan by Mahmood Afqan, the city turned into shambles, thriving once more during the Afshar period. But during the Zandiyeh and Qajar reign, when the cities of Shiraz and Tehran were selected as capitals respectively, progress in the city of Esfahan came to a halt. This city saw further decline during the reign of Zilul Soltan, the offspring of Nasereddin Shah Qajar in the year 1276 AH.However, during the Pahlavi reign, the territory and city of Esfahan witnessed industrial development, and in the last two decades the city of Esfahan has thrived to a great extent. In that, focal renovations and changes have taken place. Today, Esfahan is one of the vital cities in respect to tourism not only in Iran, but also in the world.

Falavarjan

The township of Falavarjan is a small township to the west of the city of Esfahan. The ancient name of this city was ‘Barze’ which means the branch of a tree or cultivation. This name gradually changed to ‘Varjan’. During the Safavid period due to the construction of a bridge on the Zayandeh Rood (river), Varjan was renamed Polavarjan and thence to Falavarjan. The most important historical structures of this township are in the Peykaran Mausoleum and the historical mosque of the village of Oshtorjan.

Faridan (Daran)

The township of Faridan is situated in the west of the province. To its north, are the townships of Khansar and Golpayegan. In its western direction is the province of Lurestan, to the south stands the province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari and to its east it is limited to the township of Najaf Abad. Daran was called ‘Partikan’ in the Achaemenian period and was one of the largest provinces of Aran. After the conquest of Alexander and the Grecian assault it gradually declined. During the Safavid era, a group of Armenians and Georgians were decamped to this region from the Caucasus, and thus resided here.

Fereidune Shahr

The above mentioned township is in the western most extent of Esfahan province. To the west, it has common borders with the province of Lurestan, to its south are the provinces of Khuzestan, Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad. This city dates back to thousands of years historically and was part of the ancient region of ‘Partikan’. Large groups of Georgians were decamped to this area under the orders of Shah Abbas from the Caucasus. This township experiences an extremely pleasant climate and forms the summer-quarters for the Chahar Lang Bakhtiyari tribes. Needless to say, the countryside offers natural and picturesque beauty.

Golpayegan

This township is located in the northwest of the province. In the north is the Markazi (Central) Province, whereas in the west lies the province of Lurestan. To the south are the townships of Khansar, Faridan and Najaf Abad. In the eastern direction it lies within the limits of Najaf Abad and Esfahan. Golpayegan can be said to be yet another ancient city of the country, and was known as Golbadegan, Jorbadegan or Golabadegan. The Jame’ Mosque of this city is one of the vital and historical structures here, related to the 6th century AH, a remnant of Mohammad Ebne Malek Shah Saljuqi. The same displays various epigraphs.

Kashan

Kashan is located in the north of the province and is to the south of Qom. To the west of this township is the Markazi (Central) Province, to the east lies the township of Ardestan and to the south it is within the limits of the townships of Natanz and Esfahan. Kashan can be accounted as one of the archaic cities of Iran. Archeological discoveries in the Siyalk Hillocks which lie 4 km west of Kashan reveal that this region was one of the primary centers of civilization in the pre-historic ages. The said hillock flourished during the Sassanide and Safavid periods, and was the capital during the reign of Shah Abbas Safavid II. Kashan suffered severe damage during the Saljuqi and Mongol eras. This city and its respective villages were ruined due to earthquakes in the years 1192 AH. and 1260 AH. The city of Kashan has special features in regards architecture, historical and religious sites.

Khansar

Khansar is a small township with a pleasant climate in the northwest of Esfahan. To its north and east is Golpayegan and to the south and west it is within the limits of Faridan. Its historical past goes beyond a millennium, and from the Safavid era it was one of the largest scholarly and theological centers, such as the reputed and ancient Alavi School. It is famous for its honey and flower filled gardens in the country.

Khomeini Shahr (Sadeh)
The said township is located to the west of the township of Esfahan and to the east of Falavarjan. The foundation of this city is related to the Sassanide period, and Kohan Dej en route to Esfahan was one of the capitals of their times. The former name of this city was Sadeh.

Naein 

The township of Naein with 35,000 sq.m. area, is located at 130 km. distance to the east of Esfahan and 320 km. to the south east of Tehran. It is neighboring the central plateau of Iran. The climate of this township in “Khor” and “Biyabanak” regions is hot and dry, where as in “Anarak” and south west regions, it experiences a moderate warm climate. This township has many famous villages and wells. For example “Khor” village is the birth place of “Yaqmayeh Jandaqi”, the reputed poet of 13th century AH. (Qajar era). This historical city has old antiquity and is a relic of pre-Islamic era. In geography books belonging to the 1st Islamic century, e.g., “Hodudol Alam” (372 AH.) there are some notes revealing the name with some characteristics and features of this city. The most important historical relic of Na’in is “Narenj” or “Narin” castle. The native architecture as well as the way of living of this desert community is very interesting and astonishing.

Najaf Abad

The said township is situated near Esfahan, to the north of which lies the townships of Golpayegan and Khansar and to the west is Faridan. In the south it is within the limits of Falavarjan and Lanjan. The foundation of this city is related to the 11th century AH, and it is believed that its construction began under the orders of Shah Abbas Safavid I, in the year 1022 AH. Its native architecture proves attractive, and moreover, this city is enhanced with verdant areas and archaic trees in comparison to other such areas.

Natanz

The township of Natanz is situated to the northwest of Esfahan. To its north is Kashan, and to the east is Ardestan. This city dates to the pre-Islamic era, and came under the influence of the general conditions prevailing in Esfahan and Kashan from the early Islamic period to the Mongol era. Important relics of this region are the Jame’ Mosque, Khanegah (or a kind of monastery) and tomb of Sheikh Abdol Samad.

Semirom

The township of Semirom is situated in the southern most point of the territory of Esfahan. To the east of which is the province of Fars, in the south stands the province of Kohkiluyeh and Booyer Ahmad, from the west it is within the limits of the province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari and to its north, is in the neighborhood of Shahreza. In the past, this city was known as Samiran, which means a cold area. This city engulfs waterfalls and springs and is one of the reputed recreational spots and so to speak, pleasant areas to be taken advantage of in summer.

Shahreza (Qomsheh)

This township is located in the southwest of the province, to the north of which are Esfahan and Lanjan and to the west is within the limits of the province of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari. To its south is the township of Semirom and in the eastern direction is the township of Esfahan. This ancient city was primarily known as Qomsheh, but due to the presence of the tomb of Imamzadeh Shahreza (AS) it came to be called by the latter. One of the noted and historical sites dating to the Saljuqi era, is the nocturnal area of the Jame’ Mosque of this city. Qomsheh means a hunting ground or an area rich in water and with many such subterranean canals.

Historical Monuments

Aqa Bozorg School, Kashan

This ancient structure has four porches and a beautiful dome with two tile worked minarets. Its courtyard and chambers that are on a lower level display an attractive aspect. Below these chambers are is the pool and nocturnal area made use of in summer. The dome is built on an octagonal platform and is doubly covered. The lower covering bears the weight of the ceiling, conducting it to the pillars, and the other is the outer covering which aids in making the dome look larger. Skylights have been affixed to the dome, along with religious versus around the dome have provided a harmonious connection between the different sections of the structure.The ceilings of the western and winter nocturnal areas are of plaster, which have been designed on simple lines besides which is the library. The porches display intricate tile work, indicating the traditional art and culture of this land and the tombs of several trustees can be noted in the western porch. This structure was constructed in the year 1268 AH.

 

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Chahar Baq (Soltani) School, Esfahan

This school was constructed for theological studies, late in the reign of Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid in the years 1116-1126 AH. The artistic work on its dome is of tiles and the majestic entrance door is a matchless work of art, adorned with gold and silver.

 

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Ali Qapoo Edifice, Esfahan

This palace was also called ‘Daulat Khaneh-e-Mobarakeh Nagsh-e-Jahan’ and the ‘Daulat Khaneh Palace’. Its unique archaic architecture is related to the Safavid era. This edifice was constructed under the orders of Shah Abbas I. The monarch would receive special envoys in this palace and hold his audience here. Valuable miniature paintings, the works of the reputed artist of the times Reza Abbassi, and other traditional works of art can be noted here.Plasterwork of the ‘sound room’ was modeled such that the acoustic affect produced natural and pleasant sounds. The sovereign and his guests would be spectators to polo, illuminations, fire-works and the dramatics that took place in the Nagsh-e-Jahan Square from the halls of this elegant palace.

 

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Chehel Sotune Palace, Esfahan

The Chehel Sotune Palace and its garden cover an area of approximately 67,000 sq. m. This palace was constructed during the reign of Shah Abbas I. Shah Abbas II was also responsible for additions to this palace, such as the hall of mirrors, the hall of 18 pillars and two large chambers facing the north and south. The spectacular hall of mirrors with its decorative mirror work, tile work and paintings, along with its majestic porches and pool which faces this hall, all add to its splendor.

 

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Interesting aspects of the Chehel Sotune Palace are:
The stone lions at the four corners of the central pool, the hall and marble and vaulted cornices around it.

 

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Paintings of Chehel Sotune Palace

 

The gilded adornments, paintings and the portrait of the sovereign in the royal hall. Along with that of the chambers surrounding the hall of mirrors.The portrait of Shah Abbas I with the special crown and the miniatures of the treasury room.

 

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Paintings of Chehel Sotune Palace

 

Several facades such as the ‘Qotbiyeh Mosque’, ‘Zaviyeh in Kushk’, and the imprints of the ‘Dar-e-Joubareh’ and ‘Aqasi Mosque’ are affixed in the western and southern walls of the garden. The hall and porches of this palace were constructed during the fifth year of the reign of Shah Abbas II. The reflection of the twenty pillars of the hall in the pool opposite the palace brings about a conception of forty pillars. Hence the name Chehel Sotune.

Fin Historical Edifice and Garden, Kashan

This garden is located to the south of the city of Kashan and near the village of Fin. The same was constructed on the former structures of the Al-e-Booyeh era. Its general layout and aqua system has been rendered special attention. This vicinity gained fame due to the murder of Amir Kabir, the reputed nationalist and Prime Minister (Grand Chancellor) of Nasereddin Shah Qajar. Amir Kabir was assassinated in a small bath here in the year 1268 AH. by the order of the Shah. This garden is a relic from the Safavid period, and has remained such for centuries due to the capacity of water it gains from the Soleimaniyeh spring. Today, this water flows into the ‘Lasegah’ pool after meandering through this beautiful garden, and providing water for the surrounding areas.

 

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Fin Historical Palace

 

The structures of this garden are the entrance and its facade, tower and ramparts, the Safavid and Fathali Shah sections, chambers for the elite, the museum on the western side of the premises, the large and small bath and the library in the eastern sector of this garden.

 

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Fin Garden

 

The covered construction housing the Shah Abbasi section is in two floors, this being in the center of the garden and opposite the grand facade. The construction of the same was completed in the year 1226 AH. Here, there are beautiful paintings and an inscription worked with plaster in the ‘nastaliq’ script. In the vicinity of this garden, several monarchs such as Shah Safi, Shah Soleiman, Shah Tahmasb, Shah Abbas, Karim Khan Zand and Fath Ali Shah have all contributed in the repair or making addition to the structures on the premises. However, these structures witnessed plunder in the early period of the constitutional revolution.

Naqsh-e-Jahan Square, Esfahan

This square is from the period of Shah Abbas I, and has a length of 500 m. from north to south, and its width being approximately 165 m. Surrounding this vicinity are the Abbasi Mosque and Sheikh Lotf Ol-lah Mosque, the Qaisarieh portal and the Ali Qapoo Edifice. During the reign of Shah Abbas I and his successors, this square was an area where festivities, polo, dramatics and military parades took place.

 

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Khajoo Bridge, Esfahan

The above mentioned took its foundation in the late Teimooride period, and was constructed according to what it is currently in 1060 AH, under the orders of Shah Abbas II. Its cubicles, adornments and tile work are interesting aspects of this constructions. There is a structure in the center of the bridge, known as the Beglarbegi construction. The same was used as a temporary residence for the royal family. The name of this bridge is a distorted version of the word ‘Khajeh’ which was a title for great personalities in the Safavid era. It was constructed on the Zayandeh Rood River.

 

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Sio Seh Pol (Allah Verdy Khan) Bridge, Esfahan

This bridge is approximately 300 m. in length and 14 m. in width, and is one of the masterpieces in bridge construction in Iran and the world. The same was constructed in 1005 AH. under the supervision and expense of Allah Verdy Khan, one of the famous commanders of Shah Abbas Safavid I. The Armenians used to hold special festivities near this bridge in the Safavid period. It was constructed on the Zayandeh Rood river.

 

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Narenj (Narin) Castle, Naein

This ancient castle is located near the Alavian Mosque in the Babol Masjed locality. The architectural affects of this castle reveal that it was a fire temple in the pre-Islamic period. The same has been constructed of baked bricks, and dates back to the Parthian and Sassanide eras. The height of this castle from streets and alleys is 5 m. whereas, from the depth of the moat it is 40 m.

 

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Religious Monuments

Esfahan Jame’ (Jomeh) Mosque, Esfahan

The same is an aggregate of structures and works of art of the post-Islamic period in Iran. Interesting aspects of this mosque are:Small platforms to the right of the entrance corridor, along with circular pillars and beautiful plaster work. These are the remnants of the Deylamite period dating to the fourth century AH.The Khajeh Nezam-ol-Molk Dome, (minister during the reign of Malek Shah Saljuqi). The same was constructed in the years 465-485 AH. The forty pillars in the western sector of this dome were added to the mosque during the reign of Shah Abbas I.The forty pillars on the left of the entrance corridor, are relics from the Al-e-Mozaffar dynasty.

 

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The southern porch of this mosque was constructed in the 6th century AH, but its exterior and interior works of art are of the 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th centuries AH. The two minarets of this porch were additions made during the rule of Hassan Bek Turkoman and ‘Abu Nasr Hassan Abadar was responsible for repairs in this mosque.The tile work adornments surrounding the courtyard are remnants of the Hassan Bek Turkoman period.
The eastern porch with its elegant plasterwork is of the Saljuqi period.The Omar platform to the east of this porch is a relic of the Qobt-ud-Din Mahmood of the Al-e-Mozaffar dynasty.The western porch of the mosque along with its tile work is a remnant of the 6th century AH. This was repaired and re-decorated during the reign of Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid.The northern porch of the mosque, reputedly known as the Dervish platform is of the 6th century and its inscriptions of gypsum are relics of the Shah Soleiman Safavid period. Besides which its pillars are worth observing.Another aspect of this mosque is its dome, constructed in the year 481 AH.The central pool of the mosque was constructed during the reign of Shah Mohammad Khodabandeh Safavid.

 

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Adytum of Esfahan, Jame’ Mosque

 

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Pillars of Esfahan Jame Mosque

 


Vank Church, Esfahan

The Vank Church is one of the most beautiful and largest churches in the Jolfa vicinity of Esfahan. Its gilded ceiling, interior section of the dome and fine historical paintings are matchless. Internally, the walls are adorned with oil paintings that are also gilded similar to that of Iranian art. Religious paintings revealing an Italian touch can be observed here. The founder of this structure was Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid.

 

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Borujerdiha House, Kashan

The said premises is located in Kashan and was constructed during the years 1292-1310 AH. by ‘Haj Seyed Jaffar Natanzi’ a merchant who conducted business in Borujerd and Kashan as well. He constructed this house in order to evade religious levies. The entrance to the premises is from an octagonal vestibule and an area utilized by pageboys adorned with a number of multilateral crescents and skylights in the ceiling. Then a long corridor leads to the northern facade of the building. Near the entrance is a five-door chamber with intricate plasterwork. This opens out on a large and roof less porch, capturing the warmth of the sun, and transferring the same to the small symmetrical chambers on either side of this porch.

 

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In the northeastern portion of the structure are the kitchen quarters, arranged with shelves, and a special area to provide space for china and other utilities. Whereas in the western and eastern sections are chambers and covered porches. Opposite which is a courtyard and a stairway connecting the main premises to the basement. The basement covers a vast area and is tastefully arranged with wide wall cupboards with carved and lattice worked wooden doors. On either side of the building is the main or entrance staircase leading to the southern part of the structure. Here there is a large porch with a high ceiling giving way to an entertainment hall. Behind which, on a lower level is an octagonal area with a pool or the ‘hauz khaneh’. The same has a domed shaped roof and beautiful skylights. Here the ceiling is vaulted and worked with tiles in harmonious colors. On the walls, portraits of the Qajar sovereigns can be noted, with their guards in formal European apparel. This building is also equipped with cellars that are cool and pleasant for use in the heat of summer. Materials used in the construction of this structure are, stone, brick, sun baked bricks and a composition of clay, straw and mortar.

 

 

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Ornaments of Borujerdiha House

 

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Borujerdiha House, Kashan

 

Natural Attractions 

Zayandeh Rood River, Esfahan  

The Zayandeh Rood is one of the most important rivers of the central plateau of Iran. The same has come to be known by this name, due to the various gushing springs on its course, that is from its source to the mouth. The river takes its source in the northeastern front of Zard Kooh -e-Bakhtiari in the vicinity of Cheshmeh Deymeh, and flows to the marshes of Gavkhoony. The maximum length of the said river is 420 km and its width ranges from 10 to 20 m in the valleys and varies till 800 m in the city of Esfahan. The Kooh Rang tunnel aids in adjoining a part of the waters of the Karoon river to the Zayandeh Rood. Throughout its course, the presence of lush green thickets adds to the beauty and the pleasant environment, which attributes to the recreational atmosphere. Furthermore, alongside the banks of this river, in the city of Esfahan and near the Zaman Khan Bridge (between Esfahan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiyari), can be considered as an excellent spot for recreational purposes.

 

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Springs of Zayandeh Rood River

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Zayandeh Rood River Banks

 

Culture and Art

Abyaneh Village, Kashan

This village is one of the well known in Esfahan province, in addition to which it boasts of a pleasant climate. The same is located in the northwestern slopes of the Karkas Mountains and at a distance of 28 km. from the city of Natanz. The architectural facet in this village along with the rituals and apparel of its inhabitants is a sight to witness. The Jame’ mosque of this vicinity with its historical wooden altar dating to 776 AH, and its wooden pulpit dating to 466 AH. and an inscription in the ‘kufi’ script is greatly valued both as a historical and religious monument.

 

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Handicrafts of Abyaneh Village, Kashan

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Engraving Work on an Old Door, Abyaneh Village, Kashan

 

Chehel Sotune Musem, Esfahan

The Chehel Sotune palace was erected during the reigns of Shah Abbas Safavid I and II in the 11th century AH, in the vast premises and garden. This highly reputed structure comprises of a hall of mirrors with gilded ceilings, and chambers to the north and south with adornments of mirror and plaster work, in addition to valuable paintings. Its elevated porch with 20 wooden pillars renders a special majestic affect to the scene, and the reflection of these pillars in the large pool opposite the edifice displays a beauty of its own. Thus taking the name of Chehel Sotune or 40 pillars.The Ornaments of Chehel Sotune Palace shown in the pictures below:

 

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Kashan National Museum, Kashan

This museum has been founded in the year 1966, and is located in the northern section of the Baq-e-Fin. The Late Seyed Mohammad Naqi Mostafavi, (an archeologist of the times), established the museum. This museum comprises of a single storey building with large and small halls, besides a vast basement area. The museum has three segregated sectors named as, archeology, anthropology and handicrafts. The archeology section displays excavations of the Sialk Hills, Choqaznabil, Hasanloo, Khureen-e-Lurestan and…

 

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Enameled Dish Discavered from Sialk Hills

 

Universities

The Governmental universities in Esfahan province

Esfahan University of Technology, Esfahan University, Esfahan University of Medical Sciences,
Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Esfahan University of Art, Malek-Ashtar University of Technology, University of Kashan, Esfahan University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Golpayegan University of Engineering, University of Defence Sciences and Technologies.

The Islamic Azad universities in Esfahan province

Islamic Azad University of Najafabad, Islamic Azad University of Khomeynishahr, Islamic Azad University of Majlesi, Islamic Azad University of Khorasgan ( Esfahan), Islamic Azad University of Kashan, Islamic Azad University of Felavarjan, Islamic Azad University of Golpayegan, Islamic Azad University of Shahreza, Islamic Azad University of Naeen, Islamic Azad University of Shahinshahr, Islamic Azad University of Dehaghan, Islamic Azad University of Dolatabad, Islamic Azad University of Meyme, Islamic Azad University of Semirom, Islamic Azad University of Fereydan, Islamic Azad University of Tiran.

Handicrafts and Souvenirs, Esfahan

The province of Esfahan is reputed for its handicrafts and can be considered as an important sector in this regard. Besides its own local products, specialties from other provinces of Iran are also produced here.

 

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Since this province is highly favored by tourists, it is an obvious fact that handicrafts play a vital part in this area. The most important of these are the following: Carpet weaving, brocade weaving, kilim (or a coarse carpet), enamel work, khatam (inlaid work), engraving on metal, silver work, jewelry making, ceramic and tiles and types of sweetmeats, such as ‘gaz’ and ‘souhan’.

 

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Local and Regional Foods, Esfahan 

Special delicacies are prepared in both the urban and rural areas of the province.  These are several kinds of soup or the traditional types of Aash, prepared with broth, leafy vegetables and lentils. Types of abgoosht or meat broth and lentils. A wide array of soups, side dishes, curries accompanied with rice, and pickles to mention a few.

Local Music and Dances, Esfahan

Esfahan music teaching is one of the most famous Iranian schools of music, which has been blossomed in Safavid period, being the capital of monarch then. Due to the same fact one of the most famous Iranian musical divisions is known as “Bayat of Esfahan”. In addition to the same, in Christian locality of this province the Christian music is usually played in Jewish-Christian churches. Mention can also be made about other types of the music in Esfahan province which belong to the nearby vicinities of Esfahan, i.e., Bakhtiyari and Azarbayjani musics.