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Khuzestan

Khuzestan

05/13/13

Geography and History

The province of Khuzestan is situated in the southwest of Iran, and covers an area of 64,055 sq. km. The various townships of the said province are as follows: Abadan, Andimeshk, Omidiyeh, Ahvaz, Eazeh, Baq-e-Malek, Mah Shahr, Behbahan, Khoram Shahr, Dezful, Dasht-e-Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Shoosh, Shooshtar and Masjed Soleiman. According to the census in the year 2006, the province had a population of 4.27 million, of which approximately 67.21 % were in the urban areas, 32.37 % were rural dwellers and 2% of the remaining were non-residents. The province of Khuzestan can be basically divided into two regions,i.e., the plains and mountainous regions. The former being in the south and west of the province. The same being the alluvial plains, that are irrigated by Karoon, Karkheh and Jarahi Rivers . Whereas the mountainous regions are situated to the north and east of the province, and are considered to be a part of southern regions of the Zagross Mountain Ranges.

Climate

In the elevated and mountainous regions of the province, a moderate summer and cold winter are experienced, but in the skirts of the mountains semi-desert like conditions prevail. In plains and inferior regions of south and southeast, a variable climate ranging from semi-desert to coastal desert pre-dominates. Thus this region experiences long and warm summers beside short, moderate winters. Khuzestan province comes under the influence of three kinds of air currents – first, the cold air current of mountainous regions which during the winters blows towards the Persian Gulf, thereby brings about cold weather. Second, the coastal winds that occasionally blow from the Persian Gulf in summers and is saturated with a high percentage of humidity and heat, influencing the plains. Third, is the air current blowing from Arabia known as ‘Somum'(poison), which is always accompanied by dust and sand, and crossing the Persian Gulf it gets saturated with high levels of humidity.

History and Culture

The province of Khuzestan is one of the centers of ancient civilizatios, dating back to 6,000 years in Shoosh (Susa). In the 4th millennium BC the powerful Elamite govenment was founded in Susa, and was overthrown in the 1st millennium BC by the Assyrians.
In the year 640 BC, Shoosh came under the rule of the Assyrians and was divided into two parts. The northern segment named “Anzan” came under the rule of Parsees who had been the former settlers of this region, and the southern part was dominated by the Assyrians.
In the year 640 BC, Shoosh came under the rule of the Assyrians and was divided into two parts. The northern segment named “Anzan” came under the rule of Parsees who had been the former settlers of this region, and the southern part was dominated by the Assyrians. In the year 538 BC Koorush (Cyrus) the Achaemenian, sent his forces to Babylon and conquered the Elamite lands. The city of Susa was then proclaimed as one of the Achaemenian capitals. Moreover, in the year 521 BC, Shoosh came under the interest of Darius (Dariush), who erected a grand palace known as ‘Hadish’ here. But the astonishing period of upmost glory and splendour of Achaemenian dynasty came to an end by the conquests of Alexander the Macedonian. After Alexander the Selookis or the Seleucidian Dynasty came into power.
In the year 187 BC, due to weakness of Seleucidian Dynasty, Pars and Khuzestan united and slipped out of their control. Mehrdad I, the Parthian (171-137 BC) gained victory over the Selooki ruler in a war and appointed someone from the Parthian Dynasty as a ruler of Khuzestan. During the Sassanide Dynasty this area thrived tremendously and flourished, and this dynasty was responsible for the many constructions that were erected in Ahvaz, Shooshtar and the north of Andimeshk. After the moslem Arabs conquered Iran, the Omavi and Abbassid Caliphates held the ropes in Khuzestan and ruled till the mid 3rd thousandth AH. On the decline of the latter, Yaqub (Jacob) Lais, from the vicinity of Sistan, raised the flag of independence and ultimately gained control on Shoosh and Shooshtar. In the year 326 AH, Moaz-ul-Dowleh Daylami ruled Kerman and Khuzestan. From the years 443 – 845 AH, the Kharazmshahian, the Shalmeh Afshar Dynasty, the Attabaks of Fars, the Mozaffar Dynasty, the Jalayer Dynasty and the Teimoorians respectively ruled Khuzestan either completely or partially. In the year 845 AH., the religious movement of “Mosha’sha’ian” were formed in this region. The Safavid rulers sent their troops to attack the Mosha’sha’ian and Afshars several times. In the year 1142 AH. Nader Shah Afshar entered Khuzestan. On the death of Karim Khan Zand, the area was witness to violations, and during the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar, Khuzestan was finally divided into two. After the Iran -Britain war in 1273 AH, peace prevailed in Khuzestan for a period of 40 years. At this time the Arab tribes or clans had been divided into different groups, each being ruled by a Sheikh (or chief). In the past eighty years, except during Iran-Iraq war, the province of Khuzestan thrived and prospered, and today accounts for one of the regions in Iran that holds a strategic position.

Khuzestan Province Townships

Abadan, Ahvaz, Andimeshk, Baq-e-Malek, Behbahan, Dasht-e-Azadegan, Dezful, Eazeh, Khoram Shahr, Mah Shahr, Masjed Soleiman, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Shoosh, Shooshtar.

Abadan

The township of Abadan is located to the southwest of the province, and experiences short winters and long warm summers, along with a high percentage of humidity. Abadan is a delta shaped island, with its base facing towards the Persian Gulf and its head towards Khoram Shahr. Previously it was supposed to be called “Khezr Island” but later on it was known as “Ebadan”. In 1935 “Ebadan” changed to “Abadan”. Its center is the city of Abadan, which lies at a distance of 1,000 km. from Tehran. At the end of the 13th century AH, due to the presence of the oil industry, Abadan developed and expanded. In the year 1909, the refinery factories were erected, which unfortunately suffered heavy damage during the imposed war between Iran and Iraq. After which it is gradually regaining its former status. This refinery is one of the attractive sites of the city of Abadan, and is one of the oldest and largest refineries in the world.

Ahvaz

The township of Ahvaz is situated in the central portion of the province and has a warm and humid climate. Ahvaz is the center and largest city of the province and is located 874 km. from Tehran. In ancient times it was called “Hormozd Ardeshir” and then “Soq-ol-Ahvaz”. Later on it was known as “Naseri”. Some historians have mentioned it as “Algeenis”.
There is a strong possibility that the city of Ahvaz is located on the site of the old city of “Taryana”. Ardeshir Sassanide I rebuilt Taryana and named it “Hormozd Ardeshir”. During his reign and that of his successors, the city prospered, and instead of Susa became the capital of “Suziana” (Khuzestan). At the time that the Arabs gained control of Suziana, Hormozd Ardeshir was re-named to Soq-ol-Ahvaz , meaning the market of Khuzis or Hoories.
During the period of Omavi and Abbasides Caliphs, Ahvaz city flourished and became the center for the cultivation of sugar-cane. But at the end of the 3rd century AH due to upheavvals of Saheb-ol-Zanj it witnessed a decline. Later on efforts were put for recapturing its fame, but in the mid 9th century AH, the destruction of its large dam further more intensified the decline of the city from the former position that it was used to enjoy.
The construction of the Suez Canal, improved trade and shipping on Karoon River, and reformation of Bandar-e-Naseri as a port during the Qajar era, once again caused flourishing of Ahvaz, and its name was changed to Naseriyeh. During Pahlavi period, the city was re-gained its old name,i.e.,’Ahvaz’. At present it plays an important role regarding the cultural, economical and industrial fields in Iran as well as being one of the highly populated areas of the province.

Andimeshk

The township of Andimeshk is located to the north of the Khuzestan province, on the southern slopes of Zagross mountains and at a distance of 726 km from Tehran. It has common borders with Lurestan. The city of Andimeshk was constructed near the ruins of the ancient city of “Lur” (Aritareen). “Lur” was a flourishing city, and its name is mentioned in the records of ancient geographers,i.e., Estakhry and Moqadasi. “Lur” continued florishing till mid ages, since then it was demolished and turned into a ruin. In the Qajar era, Andimeshk gained further glory and importance due to construction of a castle by “Haj Saleh Khan Mokri”, and thereby came to be known as “Saleh Abad”, and thence Andimeshk.

Baq-e-Malek

This township is situated to the east of the province, and has common borders with Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province. The city of Baq-e-Malek is located at a distance of 1,024 km. from Tehran. This vicinity has a ancient historical background. The elevated regions, forests, natural landscapes and rivers have provided a great opportunity for development and florishing of this territory.

Behbahan

The township of Behbahan has a semi-desert like climate, with hot scorching summers and rainy winters. Its center is Behbahan city, which is located at a distance of 1,105 km. from Tehran. The ruling center of ancient times was known as “Qobad Foreh” and “Arkan”. Qobad Ebne Firooz was the first person responsible for constructing “Arrehjan” (Behbahan) city.
During the Sassanian era, the city of Arrehjan which is located at a distance of 12 km. from the current city of Behbahan, was erected. After the destruction of Arrehjan city, the inhabitants flocked to Behbahan. In the 4th century BC the city of Arrehjan was fully populated, but in the second half of the 8th century, not a trace of Arrehjan remained, and in a short period the current city of Behbahan replaced the former.

Dasht-e-Azadegan

The said township is situated to the west of the province and it has a common border with Iraq. Its center is Sosangerd which is located at a distance of 941 km. from Tehran. It has warm and dry climate. Originally, Dasht-e-Azadehgan was known as “Bani Taraf” and in the year 1935, was changed to “Dasht-e-Mishan”, and thence after the Islamic revolution, was re-named as “Dasht-e-Azadegan”. The inhabitants of this vicinity are Arab tribes.
Till the year 1944, this area was a part of the Ahvaz township, later on it joined the Bostan district, and turned into the township of Dasht-e-Mishan (Dasht-e-Azadegan).

Dezful

The township of Dezful lies at a distance of 721 km. from Tehran, and is located to the north of Khuzestan province. Generally, it has a desert like and comparatively dry weather with hot summers and moderate winters. The word Dezful has been derived from the words ‘Dejpol’ or ‘Despool’, and in local language it is known as ‘Dezpeel’. It is said that the people who constructed the bridge, erected a fort or “Dej” right at the beginning of the same to protect the bridge. Since then the name of “Dejpol” (fort bridge) has remained on this city.
Alike the city of Shooshtar, Dezful surpassed the city of Jondishahpur. On destruction of the latter, Dezful progressed to a greater extent. later on due to the devastating state of its water network, which was from the Sassanide period, the city and its surroundings were subject to heavy damages. Although, Dezful remained safe from the Mongol attacks, but later on came under the Ilkhanan jurisdiction, and did not show any resistance against the attacks of Amir Teimoor. Nader Shah was responsible for safeguarding this vicinity against the Lors, and thereby erected a castle called Dej Shah a few kilometers to the northeast of Behbahan. Presently Dezful is one of the thriving and important cities of Khuzestan province.

Eazeh

The township of Eazeh has cold winters and moderate summers, with the city of Eazeh as its center. Eazeh lies at a distance of 1,082 km. from Tehran. This land was one of the old centers of civilization, even so during the Elamite period, and was considered as one of the prospering areas. The ancient “Anzan” or “Anshan” was also located close to the city of Eazeh. The Greeks florished here during the time of the Selooki or Seleucidians. Even during the Sassanian period the old city of Eazeh existed. During the early Islamic period, this city proved to be one of the important cities of Khuzestan, and had an independent ruler. In the Attabak period, the city was called Malmir (Mal-e-Amir means belonging to Amir). Later on the name of Eazeh was completely forgotten, and it was during the Pahlavi reign that it was re-focused on. Till the year 1953, Eazeh was a district of Ahvaz and it was only in 1958 that it was claimed to be a township.

Khoram Shahr

The township of Khoram Shahr experiences extremely hot and humid weather, and the Port of Khoram Shahr (Bandar-e-Khoram Shahr), is located 994 km. from Tehran. In the 12th century AH, Khoram Shahr was nothing more than a small village, and it was only in the beginning of the 13th century that it changed into a reputed sea port. It was under interest due to its strategic position, and therefore suffered repeated foreign attacks. The Ottoman Empire in the year 1883 AD, Britain in the year 1857 AD, and finally Iraq in the year 1980, surrounded Khoram Shahr respectively. Discovery of oil in 19th century and proximity to the oil refinery factory of Abadan frequently added to its importance. The old name of Khoram Shahr under the influence of the red color of the Karoon River was “Mohammarreh”. During the imposed war of Iraq, this city suffered heavy damages and loss, besides being occupied by the enemy for a period of 575 days. Ultimately regaining its freedom on May 23, 1982.

Mah Shahr

The township of Mah Shahr lies at a distance of 1,025 km. from Tehran, and is located to the south of the province and along the coast of the Persian Gulf. It was formerly called “Bandar-e-Ma’shoor”, and even long before that it was known as “Mahruyan” and “Machuleh”. In the year 1965, its name was changed to “Bandar-e-Mah Shahr”. The said had been one of the most important ports for export of oil from Iran, before Kharq was facilitated.
Today Mah Shahr is the focal point for export of gas and refinery products in Abadan. Most of the citizens of Mah Shahr mainly has been dwelled in the old sector of city which is located at a distance of 3 km. from the new site.

Masjed Soleiman

The said township is situated to the north of the province, and has common borders with Esfahan and Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari provinces. It accounts for being an important area as the ‘winter residing quarter’ for the Bakhtiyari tribes. This township is located in the mountainous areas as well as the plains, with moderate winters and warm summers. Its center being the city of Masjed Soleiman which lies at a distance of 1,030 km. from Tehran. Masjed Soleiman is one of the important cities of Khuzestan province regarding the oil industry. According to archeological discoveries, evidences relative to the pre-historic ages and cavemen have been observed here. Furthermore, it is believed that Hushang Pishdadi by means of two flints (stones) discovered fire in this area. Masjed Soleiman held importance during the various reigns such as, the Elamites, Medes, Parsees, Seleucidians, Parthians and the Sassanids. This vicinity was the birthplace of Chish Pesh Parsi. Near the current city of Masjed Soleiman is the great fire-temple from the Parthian and Sassanide periods. In the ancient times, this area was known as ‘Tolqor’, but in 1924 after the visit of Pahlavi I, and on his suggestion to the parliament, this vicinity was assigned Masjed Soleiman in the year 1926 by parliament, and today is one of the thriving and industrial cities of the province.

Ramhormoz

The township of Ramhormoz is situated to the east of the province and experiences a warm climate. Its center is Ramhormoz city, and lies at a distance of 1,008 km. from Tehran. It has common border with the province of Kohkiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad. Ramhormoz is a historical city and the founder is said to be Hormoz Sassani. Previousely it was known as “Samangan”. In spite of being a historical city, it remained under developed. The historical territory of Ramsheer is in this township, and the ruins of the ancient site of Ramsheer is at the vicinity of 3 km. The importance of Ramshir is more due to existance of the large bridge of Ramshir, built on Jarahi (Maroon) River, which acts as a link connecting the southern sea ports with Ramshir city. In recent years, Ramhormoz has regained its importance and is considered to be one of the fast developing and important townships of Khuzestan province.

Shadegan

Shadegan is one of the southern townships of Khuzestan province. Its center is the city of Shadegan which is located at 971 km. from Tehran. It experiences a warm and desert like climate. The old name of Shadegan was “Soroq” and its central government city was known as “Dowraq”. Soroq is one of the townships of Khuzestan and the name of a river around which by the order of Ardeshir, the son of Bahman Esfandiyar some cities were excavated. Currently the city of Shadegan has expanded and is famous for its woven sleeveless cloaks (aba).

Shoosh (Susa)

The township of Shoosh is located to the northwest of the province, and has common borders with the Ilam province. Its center is the city of Shoosh which is at a distance of 1,010 km. from Tehran. It experiences a hot climate. Susa is considered to be one of the oldest centers of civilization throughout the globe. In archeological excavations, relics related to the pre-historic era have been discovered here. The Elamites were the first clans who were responsible for its flourishment. During this reign Susa was proclaimed as a capital. Even after the Achaemenians gained control over Susa, the latter sustained its splendor and was selected as the winter capital by Dariush the Achaemenide. Till the beginning of the control by the moslems, Shoosh continued to thrive. In the year 1898 AD, the famous castle of Shoosh was constructed by “Morgan” on the northern part of the Acropol hill. The ancient name of Shoosh was ‘Soos’ or ‘Dasht-e-Soosiana’, and later on was changed to Shoosh.

Shooshtar

The township of Shooshtar is located at a distance of 831 km. from Tehran and has cold winters, but is warm for the rest of the year. Shooshtar lies to the north of Ahvaz. According to the Iranian mythology, the founder of this city is supposed to be Hushang Pishdadi. The conquest of Shooshtar by the moslems took place in the Omar caliphate period. Shooshtar at the times of Bani Omayeh, was in hands of “Khavarej” (those who had turned against religion). In the year 820 AH, Amir Teimoor conquered this area and thereafter it became the center of the Shiite sect. In 1165-1167 AH. Nader Shah continously attacked this vicinity and in these battles many were killed. During the reign of Fathali Shah Qajar, the cities of Shooshtar, Dezful and Hoveyzeh, became a part of the Kermanshah province. In the reign of Mozzafar-edin-Shah, segregation among the two groups of “Heydari” and “Ne’mati” increased to its upmost level, and Khaz’al Khan encouraged the Arabs to assault Shooshtar. In Pahlavi era, after repeated unrest, the region ultimately gained peace, and today is considered to be one of the important cities of Khuzestan province.

Historical Monuments

Acropol (Shoosh) Castle, Shoosh

The Acropol or Shoosh castle was constructed by a group of French archeologists in the year 1897 AD in the highest region of the city. The same is very similar to the Bastille in France. This castle has been constructed by Dezful artists and by means of bricks obtained from Darius (Dariush) castle and some engraved bricks in the Kific script from Choqazanbil. This castle was in the hands of the French authorities before the Islamic revolution, after which it was utilised as the archeological center of Shoosh.

 

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Valuable and important relics such as the famous statue of Queen Napirasustoon, Hamurabi Code and famed buff earthenware glass of Shoosh with a wild goat drawing have been discovered from the Acropol Hill. It took a period of 15 years to build this structure which stood as a defense fort against the attack of local clans and tribes. During Iran-Iraq war this castle was under the bombardment of Iraqi troops, and later on came under re-construction and repair.

 

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Choqazanbil Temple (Ziggurat), Shoosh

Choqazanbil is situated at a distance of 45 km. south east of Shoosh, and is the only remnant of an ancient city, that was constructed approximately in 1300 BC. This city which was at the vicinity of 2 km. from Dez river, was known as “Ontashgal”. The same is a reminder of the new Elamite civilization. It was surrounded by three interconnected sun brick made ramparts with the main entrance situated in the eastern side of the largest rampart.

 

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The palaces and tombs of the Elamite monarchs are situated between the first and second ramparts. Between the second and the third ramparts, the remnants of the water supply and purification system for city is observed. The water purification system of Choqazanbil was to provide drinking water for citizens which is obviously accounted as one of the most ancient water supply systems. In the center of the third rampart, the main temple (Ziggurat) is placed. This square shaped structure is constructed at the dimensions of 105×105 sq.m., along four main directions.

 

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This temple was constructed by means of millions of bricks, in five floors. At present only two floors have been remained. Except for the first and fifth floors, the rest have been filled with sun baked bricks. The fifth floor which is considered to be the most highest one, was used to be the place where idols were kept., The main idol was called “Inshushinak” which was considered to be the most famous deity of Shoosh city. On the brick walls of the temple, same inscriptions designating the name of the king in the Cuneiform script can be observed which reveals the aim of the monarch in the construction of this temple. Near the temple, on the main ground there are two circular platforms. Some believe this to be a place where sacrifices were carried out, and the other version is that, this was an area for astrology.The aggregate of this city along with Elamite civilisation in the vicinity of Haft Tappeh, was demolished in 640 BC as a result of Assyrian conquests, under the command of ‘Ashur Banipal’, thence terminating the Elamite jurisdiction after a period of more than a millennium.

 

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Shah Abolqasem Tomb, Dezful

The same is located to the right of the Dezful – Shooshtar Road. The structure consists of the entrance doorway, anteroom, nocturnal area of the mosque and the mausoleum. The main entrance is flagged with ancient columns constructed of thick bricks. The nocturnal area is rectangular and the entrance to this forms the corridor of the mausoleum, which has a curved ceiling in roman style, constructed of old sculptured stones. The top portion of the doorway was plaster worked in the Eilkhani period, and the sepulchre is of wood and devoid of any inscriptions. Some historians believe that this is the tomb of Yaqub Lais who passed away in the year 265 AH. near Jondi Shapour and the old mausoleum of Shah Abolqasem.

 

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Shaoor (Ardeshir) Palace, Shoosh

The remnants of this palace is situated along the western banks of the Shaoor River, opposite the mausoleum of the Prophet Danial (PBUH). This palace has a square shaped hall with lateral installations. The columns or pillars are made of stone, and its walls are of sun baked bricks. This palace was constructed during the reign of Ardeshir II , and was used as his residential palace as well as a seat of power. The Ruins of Shaoor (Ardeshir) Palace
shown below :

 

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Sika Water Mills, Shooshtar

One of the oldest and most beautiful structures of Shooshtar is the Sika Water Mills. It is an area with small rooms and narrow corridors, alongside which streams of water canals are observed. It has outlets to the Gerger River. In these mills the high pressure of water current from up to down, move the wheels for grinding the wheat. In summers a pleasant drizzling wind  blowing in the Sika rooms which creates a cool recreational place for people of Shooshtar.

 

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Sika Water Mills

 


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Shooshtar Historical Waterfalls 

 

Religious Monuments

Danial-e-Nabi Mausoleum, Shoosh

The same is located on the eastern banks of the Shaoor River. This mausoleum is the resting abode of one of the prophets of the Israelites. The premises has two courtyards, which are surrounded with chambers and porches. The mausoleum is located at the end of the second courtyard, which has rooms in three side of courtyard for a nights stay of pilgrims.
In this mausoleum, the sepulchre below the tomb is an old yellow colored stone devoid of any inscriptions. The ceiling of the mausoleum has beautiful mirror works with light apertures on eight sides under the dome. The foundations of the mausoleum are old but thick and strong. The upper section of eastern side of mausoleum is adorned with tile works. The dome of Danial-e-Nabi is a multi-sided, hexagonal in shape erected on a circular base.

 

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Natural Attractions

Karoon River, Khuzestan

The Karoon River, is one of the longest and most saturated rivers of Iran. It originates from the springs present in the skirts of the Vank and Zard Kooh Mountains in the village of Shurab, 91 km. from Shahr-e- Kord. With the name of Ab-e-Koohrang, it flows along the western valley of the Zard Kooh Mountains towards the south west. Entering into the Koohrang Dam Lake, a part of the water is channeled through a tunnel in the mountains, to the source of the Zayandeh Rood River, and another part, crosses the dam, and after following a long distance in the western valley of the Zard Kooh Mountains, and before entering Khuzestan, joins the Khersan River.

 

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After which it flows through a part of the village of Mian Kooh and leaves the province of Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari and enters the Khuzestan province. At this point a few minor tributaries join it, and continues in a north eastern direction entering the village of Sosan, and the eastern valley of the Lander Mountains making its way to the northern valley of the Gozir Mountains after following a long and meandering course. On continuation of its course, the Karoon is joined by various tributaries, at 8 km. north west of Shooshtar it joins the Shoor River and after crossing this vicinity, it divides into two.The western branch after joining the Huram River, rejoins the said in Qir. It is at this point that it intermingles with the Dez River (the most important and largest branch of Karoon river), and continuing a long course it flows towards Ahvaz. On entering Khoram Shahr, to the east, it divides into two. The western branch called Bahman Sheer flows towards south west and through Khormosi reaches the Persian Gulf. The eastern branch in the south of Khoram Shahr enters the Arvand Rood River. Just like the Karkheh River, Karoon also follows a spectacular interesting course.

 

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Ahvaz Bridge on Karoon River

 

Culture and Art

Handicrafts and Souvenirs, Khuzestan

From the past, the province of Khuzestan was renounced for its textiles and silk weaving industry. The ancient Arab geographer Al Moqaddassi has mentioned about the textiles of this area in his records. Shooshtar and its surroundings are renounced for its sleeveless cloaks made of both thick and fine materials. Shadegan is also famous for its cloaks. The weaving of the Islamic veil and the Arab veil is a dominant feature here. Bed Sheets of Shooshtar, waist wrappers of Dezful, jajeems (a loosely woven woolen material) of Shadegan are worth mentioning. Besides there are other handicrafts such as, carpet, a kind of chain stitch embroidery, Kilim weaving (a type of coarse carpet), Jajeem weaving, mat and rush mat weaving, bedding wrappers, manufacture of Warsaw silver and … can be taken to account as the handicrafts of this province.

Local and Regional Foods, Khuzestan

Food habits of Khuzestan people has intermingled with their occupation and type of their job.
Types of Fish: Fried fish, Mahroot, Saboor, Fish Khoresht, Sorkhoo Fish, Masmooteh, Marg Samak, Kooshk Fish, Vegetable Fish, Fish Soup, Prawn, Tandori Fish, Shoor Fish, and Kookoo.
Types of Polow: Prawn Polow, Kalam Polow, Behbahan Polow and Tah Chin.
Types of Kabab:Zard Kabab and Kabab Shireh.
The province of Khuzestan has a wide array of local delicacies such as Aash Dowa, Kaleh Pacheh, Koofteh Berenji, Panirak, Baqala, Sa’din, Hamis Tooleh, Samosa, Siloon Va Ardeh, Toochiri, Hashow, Doroshteh, Sholeh Ardeh, Maccaroni with carrot, Qolqol, Meat Roles, Chalpateh, Mahbooseh, Meat bread, Dandro, Hariseh, Omlet, Khoresht Bamiyeh, Khoresht Shalqam, Nesha’, She’riyeh, Ma’saleh Date, a variety of curries, local bread and pickles.

Universities

The Governmental universities in Khuzestan province

Khorramshahr University of Nautical Sciences and Technologies, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Petroleum University of Technology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Shahid Chamran University-Dezful, Amirkabir University of Technology(Mahshahr campus).

The Islamic Azad universities in Khuzestan province

Islamic Azad University of Shushtar, Islamic Azad University of Abadan, Islamic Azad University of Omidiyeh, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Islamic Azad University of Behbahan, Islamic Azad University of Izeh, Azad University of Mahshahr.

Local Music and Dances, Khuzestan

In the province of Khuzestan Shooshtari notes played in “Homayoon” musical division are very famous.Musical instruments such as “Flute”, “Oboe”, “Kettle drum”, “Tambourine” and other instruments are used. Arab lamentations and poetry such as “Abu Ziyeh”,”Atab”,”Abu Tageh” or “Basteh”, etc., have deeply influenced this territory. The local Arab music singers are called “Al Khashebeh” which play arabic music. There is another local arabic song and music known as “Alvaniyeh”. In “Atab” melody there is some kind of sorrow, while “Abu Tageh” is a delighting group song which is normally accompanied with a group dance called “Talgat Asba'”. Arabic musical instruments are “Motbag”, “Windpipe”, “Al Azabeh”, “Drum”, “Tambourine”, “Al Zanjari”, “Robab”, “Santur” and “Damam”.

Shoosh Museum, Shoosh

The Shoosh Museum is situated amidst a garden near the ancient Shoosh Castle, and opposite the Danial-e-Nabi Mausoleum. The construction of this museum coincided with the excavations at Shoosh. Thereby the bricks discovered there and in Choqazanbil were utilized in construction of this building.

 

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Some other part have been also added to the museum in the following years. The museum was inaugurated in the year 1966 and displays remnants from the pre-Elamite to the Islamic period. The Shoosh Museum has six exhibition halls in which all the vestiges discovered during excavations made in Shoosh and Choqazanbil are on display.

 

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A sample of Glazed Earthenware Vessel in Shoosh museum is shown below:

 

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