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Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad

Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad

05/14/13

Geography and History

The province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad with an area of 15,504 square kilometers is located in central southwestern Iran. Based on the latest divisions of the country , the cities of this province are as follows: Kohkiluyeh (with its center as Dehdasht), Boyer Ahmad (with its center as Yasooj) and Gachsaran. Yasooj is the provincial capital. This province is limited in the north by the province of Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari, and in the south are the provinces of Fars and Bushehr. In the east the provinces of Esfahan and Fars and to the west it is in the neighborhood of Khuzestan province. In 2006, this province has a population of 634,299. Out of this 47.64% lived in the urban and 52% lived in the rural areas. The remaining being non-residents.

Climate

The province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad is a mountainous region. Approximately 45% of it comprises of hills and mounds and the remaining 15% is in the plain. The highest point of this province is the Dena summit with a height of 4.409 meters and the lower part of this area being 500 m. above sea level. In cold regions the heights are higher, as well as the mounds. In the warmer regions, these heights are lower. Most of the agricultural lands of this province are located in the plains. The Zagross Mountain Ranges stretch from the northeast to the southwest of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province, and in the heights, the amount of precipitation decreases, bringing about two types of climate. These are the cold and tropical regions. The tropical region is located in the southern and western parts of the province, enjoying a hot and dry climate with seasonal winds. The rain begins from October and ends in April. Freezing weather is rarely seen in this area. The colder region is to the north and east part of the province where the rainfall begins in October and ends in April. At times snow fall is seen in the region. This part of the province, which is located at the southern most part of the Zagross, has humid weather and its forests are covered with oak trees. Plenty of lakes and rivers flow in this region. Winds blowing in this region are as follows: Seasonal winds, that are reputedly known as the north and south winds. The north winds usually blow from the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean influencing rainfall. Whereas, the south winds blow from the south and southwest are active at the end of spring and summer in the region, and are usually accompanied by heat. Local winds blowing in different areas, to a lower extent. The most important ones are as follows: The Ashob, Zing Rooz, Kooh, Heyran, Chowgan, Ou and Darakhtroo winds.

History and Culture

The province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad, in the near past, was one of the districts of Fars province, consisting of two parts being the north eastern that was cold and mountainous and the southwestern sector which had tropical weather and was formerly called Behbahan Kooh. Till June 23, 1963 a part of the present province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad, was affiliated to the Khuzestan province and a part to Fars province. In Nov. 6, 1959, the tropical part of Behbahan was changed to the township of Kohkiluyeh with its center as Dehdasht. The same was a part of Khuzestan province and the remaining to the province of Fars. Following the riot of Boyer Ahmad in July 13, 1963, Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad was separated from the Fars and Khuzestan provinces. According to the approval of the Parliament of the times it came under a Governor General and Yasooj which was till then devoid of inhabitants, was assigned as its center. In March 1974 Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad was changed to a province. According to the book of “Mamasani in the Passage of History”, Lurestan, Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari, Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad, Mamasani and even Dashtestan, Bushehr, with a common background, all had the same dialect, holding similar cultures and traditions. Furthermore, Boyer Ahmad and Kohkiluyeh also benefited from same culture and social behaviors and had a direct relationship regarding the tribes.

Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad Province Townships

Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj), Gachsaran, Kohkiluyeh (Dehdasht).

Boyer Ahmad (Yasooj)

The township of Boyer Ahmad with its center as Yasooj (the center of province) is limited to the north by the city of Lordegan (of the Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari province), and Semirom (Esfahan province), to the east is Eqleed, to the south is Sepeedan and Mamasani (Fars Province) and in the west it is limited to Kohkiluyeh. This city is located in a cold region and has a cold winters and temperate summers. In this region snow and rainfall is plentiful and due to coverage of its summits and valleys by lots of snow, at all seasons of the year it has enough water. Yasooj is in a vast forested plain. Formerly, there was an old town there, named of Talkhosro, at a distance 6 km. from Yasooj and was a center of the Khans (tribal chiefs) of the time in Boyer Ahmad. After the years 1930 to 1944 new buildings were constructed in this part, but they were all ruined this after.

Gachsaran (Dogonbadan)

Gachsaran is one of the most extreme sections of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province. This section was separated in 1959 from the township of Behbahan and came under the township of Kohkiluyeh and recently has been turned into a township. The petroleum region of Gachsaran is located in tropical part which has two kinds of dry and temperate weather. As a result of its oil fields it is one of the famous centers of petroleum exploitation and exploration, thus very important. Dogonbadan is the center of this township.

Kohkiluyeh (Dehdasht)

This township is limited in the north by Baq-e-Malek, Eazeh (Khuzestan province) and Lordegan (Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari province) and in the south by Gachsaran, in the west are the cities of Behbahan and Ramhormoz (Khuzestan province) and in the northeast is Boyer Ahmad. This city has two kinds of climate that are quite different. A cold region and a tropical region providing winter-quarters for tribes. Sometimes in summer it is even cold in the summits of the mountains, whereas, warm weather prevails in the southern areas. This region has lots of mountains, where there are residential facilities. Aryobarzan the Achaemenian commander in Takab a narrow pass of this region (in northeast of Behbahan) resisted against the army of Alexander the Macedonian. In a place called Tang-e-Sorook ancient constructions can be observed such as stone stairs and a statue, alongside a route related to the Sassanide period. The city of Dehdasht which is the center of Kohkiluyeh, in the past was one of the trading centers of Fars, Esfahan and Khuzestan provinces. In the Sassanid era , Qobad Sassani founded Arjan the present city of Behbahan, in the plain regions which was known as Qobad Khoreh. The mountainous regions were also called “Rome Zemigan”. In the post Islamic period Qobad Khoreh, was called Argan or Arjan and the mountainous region of “Rome Zemigan” was reputed as Kohkiluyeh. In later centuries when Arjan turned to ruins and was triumphed by the Afshar and Lors, most of this territory was called “Kohkiloyeh”, its mountainous region “Posht Kooh” and its plain was called “Zir Kooh”. Kohkiluyeh is one of the flourishing and developing townships of the province today.

Historical Monuments

Dogoor-e-dopa Fire Temple, Gachsaran

The same is located in the agricultural lands around the Susa Village of Gachsaran. It has two pillars that are very high and are known as Goordopa. According to a narration these two pillars are the remnants of a fire temple belong to pre Islamic era. The pillars of this fire temple resemble the stone pillars of Mehri and Mitraism Temples.

 

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Kheir Abad Fire Temple, Kohkiluyeh

This relic is located on the right side of the Dehdasht – Behbahan Road, and to the left of the Kheir Abad River and is related to the Sassanide era. This construction is known as the Kheir Abad Fire Temple. It is a square shaped structure and has been made of plaster and slabs of stone. It has four arches at its four sides have been built on four bases. This fire temple is one of the archaic and famous fire-temples of Iran. It bears great historical value and is a pilgrimage site for Zoroastrians.

 

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Dokhtar Castles, Doshman Ziyari, Kohkiluyeh

The construction of these types of castles are related to the sun worshipping and angel fertility beliefs. The Dokhtar Castles were usually big and small fire-temples that have been presented to the angel of fertility and many of them are reputedly known by the same name in different regions of the province. Dokhtar Castle, Doshman Ziyari, Dokhtar Kaltak Torab and Imamzadeh Dokhtar (daughter) Castle, and the Dokhtar Good Sorkh Castle are the famous castles of this province.

 

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Religious Monuments

Imamzadeh Bibi Hakimeh, Gachsaran

The tomb of Bibi Hakimeh is located between Genaveh and Gachsaran. Based on some narrations, this tomb belongs to the daughter of Imam Jafar Sadeq (God up on his name). The tomb was renovated a few years ago. Close to this tomb there is a spring utilized by pilgrims. This site is highly respected by the inhabitants and has lots of visitors, specially during the Iranian new year, Nou Rooz.

 

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Entrance of Imamzadeh Bibi Hakimeh in Gachsaran

 

Imamzadeh Abdollah, Yasooj, Boyer Ahmad

Imamzadeh Abdolah is located in Naqareh Khaneh village. Surrounding this Imamzadeh are ancient graves with engraved tomb stones. Some of which are engraved with riders on horseback with swords, symbols such as the sun and stars can be observed here. Most of the calligraphy on the tombstones are in the Persian or Arabic scripts. These tombstones also reveal that courageous personalities were buried in this area.

Imamzadeh Pahlevan Mausoleum, Yasooj

En route to Yasooj, beyond the main road and in the heart of the mountain there is a tomb called Imamzadeh Pahlevan. It consists of a room with walls and a dome of gypsum. Close to this Imamzadeh there are some stones, on which lots of engravings, writings and adornments can be noted. Other Mausoleums and Imamzadehs in Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province are: Imamzadeh Seyed Isa, Mokhtar, Mahmood, Imamzadeh Hassan, Imamzadeh Qasem and Farajollah in Boyer Ahmad city. Imamzadeh Amir-Almomenin, Amir Shahriar, Ali Sadat, Mohammad Baqer, Masoum and Masoumeh, Yahya, Shahzadeh Soleiman, Seyed Soleiman, Seyed Emadeddin and…, located in Kohkiluyeh and Imamzadeh Amir Javan and Amir Hamzeh, Peer Moemen, Seyed Fakhreddin, Ali Jami, Soltan Mohammad Shah, Mir Hossein Jalal in Gachsaran.

 

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Imamzadeh Shah Taslim in Gachsaran

 

Natural Attractions

Barm Shir Wetland, Boyer Ahmad

This wetland is 5000 sq. meters in area and is located in the narrow Shir Pass in Boyer Ahmad. This area can be considered as an excellent recreational spot, further enhanced by the beauty of its natural surroundings.

 

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Moor Zard Zilaei Lake, Yasooj

This lake with an altitude of 2180 m. above sea level, is located to the south of Lordegan, close to the border of Chahar Mahal Va Bakhtiyari province and is at a distance of 180 km. northwest of Yasooj. This lake gains its water from Tang Sib heights and Darbary Mountains. Ultimately after 10-15 km. it flows into the Moor Zard Zilaei Lake. Lots of lakes exist in this area. This lake extends over an area of over 35 hectares and is a region worth visiting.

 

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Dena Wildlife Protected Zones, Boyer Ahmad

One of the most beautiful natural areas of the province is the Dena protected Zone. It has the privilege of having a vegetation and animal species. This region is mountainous area with high summits, tall faces and deep valleys. In the eastern part of Dena, there is the historical bottleneck of Bijan. The northern, western and southern frontiers of this area are surrounded by the Marir and Besha Rivers.

 

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Dena Mountains forms the axis of several water reserves from rivers in addition to various with lots of springs on the various slopes of these mountains. This vicinity is rich regarding vegetation for therapeutic use and consumption. Some of these trees are Kikom, sand, wild plum and oak trees. The Dena Bird Park is very famous here. Wildlife such as the brown bear, types of eagles, leopards, wolves many species of wild cats, falcons , partridges, etc. can be observed in this protected zone.

Hunting Regions, Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad

The province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad have several wetlands with splendid views. These are Bromalvan, Bromshir, Bromkooh Gol where species of different kinds of native and immigrant birds live. Visiting this aggregate, in addition to the summits and elevations around these areas specially the Dena Mountain brings forth an unforgettable experience with a long lasting impression. Water fowls including; duck and drake, storks and herons, as well as black cocks, partridges and cranes live in these regions. This vicinity is an extremely favorable one for bird lovers.

 

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A Natural Landscape of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad

 

The province of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad has many beautiful and eye-catching waterfalls, which are counted as the main factors of eco-tourism development. The most important ones of these waterfalls are as follows:

Bahram Beigy Waterfall, Boyer Ahmad

This waterfall is 30 meters in height and is located between Pataveh and Loadab Bahram Beigi in the southern sector of the Dena Mountains. Providing a glorious view, and located in heart of verdant plains with oak trees around the Loadab and Boyer Ahmad region, it offers good recreational opportunities.

 

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Konj Benar Waterfall, Gachsaran

This waterfall is at a distance of 7 km. north of Gachsaran and in the slopes of the Khalbiz Mountains. It has a height of 30 m. and its water is gained from several springs. Although the weather is warm in Gachsaran, this area experiences a cold climate. In Benar village at proximity to this waterfall, there is a place of pilgrimage (Imamzadeh) which is regularly visited by the native inhabitants.

 

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Margoon Waterfall, Yasooj

This famous and great waterfall is located at the borders of the two provinces of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad and Fars. This waterfall is at the east of Yasooj and alongside the Margoon Village. This long waterfall due to presence within the beautiful narrow Margoon Pass, and the numerous water branches which fall in the valley and flow into the river, and also due to its verdant surroundings and forested trees, is considered the most reputed waterfall of this province. Besides the presence of rivers and springs in this region, it is enhanced with other natural beauty such as plains with a species of tulips and other colorful flowers, rendering a very beautiful scene to this region and making it an unforgettable experience for its visitors.

 

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Yasooj Waterfall, Yasooj

This waterfall is a few km. from Yasooj city and to the right hand side of the route ending in Sisakht. It is in a narrow pass.

 

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This area is a tourist region specially in the spring and summer. Morover, the gardens with beautiful trees around this vicinity grant very attractive views to this waterfall. The existence of various beautiful birds in this area and different types of flowers has changed this area to an attractive region inviting tourism activities.

 

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Culture and Art

Handicrafts and Souvenirs, Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad 

Since long the tribes of Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province, used to make several types of handicrafts and hand woven products. The existence of lots of raw materials, such as wool, has provided a good scope that enables people to create articles in different types, colors, and at a desired quality. These articles are in great favor. 90% of these handmade products are marketed out of this province. There are several types of different woven crafts. Some of them are knitted, such as rugs, cushions, satchels and Kilims . Others are carpets, gabeh, Kilims, (or coarse carpets), gloves and other handicrafts that are made by the tribes of this province which are in demand.

 

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Universities

The Governmental universities in Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province

University of Yasuj (Engineering, fundamental science, humanities, agriculture), Yasuj University of Medical Sciences.

The Islamic Azad universities in Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad province

Islamic Azad University of Gachsaran(Technical, humanities, Nursing-Midwifery ).

Local Music and Dances, Kohkiluyeh Va Boyer Ahmad

Music in Boyer Ahmad tribes as well as other Iranian tribes benefit a nobility and particularities of their own. People of Boyer Ahmad according to the current songs, have special melodies which they call it Qass. The most important of which are Qass Khoshgeleh, Qass Bernou, Yaryar Qass, etc. The musical instruments that are used in this area are named as trumpets, horns and Kattle drums.

 

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Dance of Boyer Ahmad Men

 

Among people of Boyer Ahmad during functions and celebrations, local and native dances are performed. The usual dances in which only men participate are called, dance with two legs, three legs, heirloom dance and legacy. The legacy is a special play among the brave men of this land which has also a special music. This dance is performed by means of two sticks known as Dayaq-Backet which in 2 meters length and a heirloom (Tarkeh), which is 75 cm. in length. Usually one man holds ‘Dayaq’ (bracket) and the other one holding the heirloom tries to hit ‘Dayaq’ and his movement is in combination and according to the tune of music which is simultaneously played. The current dances in Boyer Ahmad are called: Sad Samaei, Yal’abeh, Bakhtiyari, Narmeh Narmaeh and Turkish Shah Farangi.

 

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Traditional Music (Naqareh)