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Mahmoud Hessaby


Mahmoud Hessaby (born on February 23, 1903, Tehran, Iran) was an Iranian scientist, researcher and professor of University of Tehran.






During the congress on “60 years of physics in Iran” the services rendered by him were deeply appreciated and he was called “the father of modern physics in Iran”.
Early life and biography
Hessaby was born in Tehran to Abbas and Goharshad Hessaby. When he was seven, the family moved from Iran to Beirut in Lebanon where he attended to school. At seventeen he obtained his Bachelor’s in Arts and Sciences from the American University of Beirut. Later he obtained his B.A. in civil engineering while working as a draftsman. He continued his studies and graduated from Engineering school of Beirut. Hessaby was admitted to the École Superieure d’Electricité and in 1925 graduated while he was employed by the SNCF (French National Railway). He started working in the electric locomotive maintenance department.






He was a scientific mind and continued his research in Physics at the Sorbonne University and obtained his Ph.D. in Physics from that University at the age of twenty-five. Dr. Hessaby was a Polymath, with five Bachelor’s degrees in literature, civil engineering, mathematics, electrical engineering and mining engineering. He continued lecturing at University of Tehran for three working generations, teaching seven generations of students and professors. In 1947, he published his classic paper on “Continuous particles”. Following this, in 1957 he proposed his model of “Infinitely extended particles”. What makes the Scientist Great, is the numerous services he rendered for his country, such as establishment of Tehran University, the teachers college, the first meteorological station and radiological center. He also founded the space research center, the geophysics institute and the satellite tracking observatory center of Iran. It is interesting to know that Dr. Hessaby also mastered Persian literature, played piano and violin and established the first Iranian institute of music. He had a son and a daughter. His son graduated in political Science from Melli University and is currently in charge of the Dr. Hessaby Institute.






Prof. Mahmoud Hessaby was fluent in five living languages: Persian, French, English, German and Arabic. He was also familiar with Sanskrit, Latin, Greek, Pahlavi, Avestan, Turkish and Italian, which he used for etymological studies. What makes Dr. Hessaby a great mind is his well-known theory of “Infinitely extended particles”. Dr. Hessaby met Dr. Albert Einstein and he was the only Iranian who closely worked with him.






He researched on his theory in Princeton, Chicago and preformed many different experiments to verify his theory. He published the results of his research in 1946 at Princeton University. His theory “Infinitely extended particles” is well known among scientists.






Once Einstein said about him, “One day he will change the direction of physics”. In 1973 the medal of “Commandeur de la Legion”, France’s greatest scientific medal was awarded to him for his great theory. One of the great things he did was the modification of Newton’s law of gravity and Columbus’ law.






In the field of Modern Physics he published 23 research papers and many books which include, Electrodynamics, Electric Eye, View point in Physics, Magnetic Eye, Solid State Physics and Quantum View. Dr. Hessaby’s life, his struggles, his tireless and intense interest in the quest of science as well as his deep interest in teaching the youth, and his commitment to the scientific progress of his country provides a living example and model for the students of science in all over the world.
The Dr. Hessaby Museum
The Museum of Dr. Hessaby is a collection of some of personal belongings and communications with various scientific cultural figures.






The museum has been established by his family, colleagues and students in order to value his 60 years of scientific, educational and cultural activities, and to set an example for young generation of Iran, students in particular, of a hard-working contemporary scientist, who despite his difficult childhood led a successful life and contributed greatly towards his country’s progress by establishing many scientific, industrial, cultural, and research centers in Iran, including the University of Tehran, the first modern university in the country. Every item of the museum is a reminder of a corner of his life and bears a valuable lesson of life. The museum is situated in his personal home, north of Tehran, and visited daily by many visitors from different scientific, cultural, and educational institutes and organisations, free of charge.
Dr. Hessaby Foundation
The Dr. Hessaby Foundation was established by his son to continue all the various aspects of his work, highlighting his belief that giving priority to research and researchers is the basis of the scientific and industrial progress of a country.
According to the Dr. Hessaby Institute, essentially an institution run by his son, the following were some of his accomplishments:
Founding the Highway Engineering School and teaching there from 1928, Survey and drawing of the first coastal road-map between Persian Gulf ports, Founding the “teachers college” and teaching there from 1928, Construction of the first radio-set in Iran (1928), Construction of the first weather-station in 1931, Installation and operation of the first radiology center in Iran in 1931, Calculation and setting of Iranian time (1932), Founding the first private hospital in Iran (Goharshad Hospital) in 1933, Writing the University care-chair and founding Tehran University (1934), Founding the Engineering school in 1934 and acting as the dean of that school until 1936 and teaching there from then on, Founding the faculty of science and acting as its dean from 1942 to 1948, Commissioned for the dispossession of British Petroleum Company during the government of Dr. Mossadegh and appointed as the first general manager of the National Iranian Oil Company, Minister of Education in the cabinet of Dr. Mossadegh from 1951 to 1952, Opposing the contract with the consortium while in the Senate of Iran in 1954, Opposing the membership of Iran in CENTO, Founding the Telecommunication Center of Assad-Abad in Hamedan (1959), Writing the standards charter for the standards Institute of Iran (1954), Founding the Geophysical Institute of Tehran University (1961), Title of distinguished professor of Tehran University from 1971, Founding the atomic research center and atomic reactor at Tehran University, Founding the atomic Energy center of Iran as member of the UN scientific sub-committee of peaceful use of nuclear power, member of the international space committee (1981), Establishment of Iran’s space research committee and member of the international space committee (1981), Establishment of the Iranian music society and founding the Persian language Academy.
Awards and honors
Father of Iranian Physics, By Iran’s Physical Society, Légion d’Honneur.




Legion d’Honneur



Hessaby M, Model of an Infinite Particle, Journal de Physique et le Radium. Hessaby M, Theoretical Evidence for the Existence of a Light-Charged Particle of Mass Greater than That of the Electron, Physical Review, Vol. 73, Issue 9, p. 1128 (1948). Hessaby M, Continuous Particles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 189–194 (1947). Hessaby M, Continuous Particles, Proceedings of the American Physical Society, Minutes of the Meeting at Montreal, June 19–21, 1947.
Research and writing
His research and writings included:
The Hessaby Dictionary, Dictionary of Iranian Names, Articles for the Establishment of the University of Tehran (1933), Treatise on “Our Path” (1935), Physics textbook for first year in high school (1939), Minutes of the meeting of the National Academy of Science (1947), Rules for the University of Tehran Budget (1961), The New Physics and the Philosophy of Ancient Percia (1963), Genealogical Tree of the Hessaby Family (1967), The Power of the Persian Language (1971), “Complete Poetical Works of Hessaby”, from the 17th century (1975), “Roots of Persian Words” (1989), “Specialized Terms in Physics” (1961–1990), Dictionary of “French Verbs-Persian Verbs”, “The how of Iranian History”, Research on and Interpretation of the Poetry of Hafez, Research on the “Golestan” of Saadi, Research on the Poetry of Baba Taher, Research on the “Shahnameh” of Ferdowsi, “In Memory of Albert Einstein” on the occasion of his death (1955).
Scientific Books
“Electrodynamics”, “Electric Eye”, “Viewpoint in Physics” (University of Tehran, 1961), “Magnetic Eye” (University of Tehran, 1966), “Solid State Physics” (University of Tehran, 1969), “Quantum View” (University of Tehran, 1979).
Other Books
Doctoral dissertation “Sensitivity of Photoelectric Cells” (Sorbonne University Press, 1927), Thesis in “The Interpretation of Dubrois Waves” (in French, 1945), “Structure of Essential Particles of the Nucleus of an Atom in Einstein’s Theory of Relativity” (Princeton University, 1946), Article on “Connected Particles” (National Academy of Science, U.S., 1947), “The Effect of Matter on the Path of Light” (as co-researcher at the Nuclear-science Institute, Chicago, 1947),  “The Correction of Newton’s Law of Gravity” (1947), “Maxwell’s Law of the Electromagnetic Field” (1947),  “The Effect of Matter on the Path of Light and the Deviation of Light Waves on the Surface of Matter” (Nuclear Science Institute, Chicago, 1947), “The Deviation of Light Waves in the Presence of Matter” (research at the University of Chicago, 1948), Continuation of research on “The Structure of Essential Particles of the Nucleus of an Atom” (University of Tehran; laboratory research on “The Transmission of Light through Matter” College of Science, University of Tehran – Thesis on “The Theory of the Diffusion of Infinite Particles”, University of Tehran, 1997), Research on the formula for the Law of Gravity, Research on the formula for the Law of Electrical Attraction, Research on the formula for the Law of the Electromagnetic Field, Research on the breakage of light near solid matter, Research on lasers, Research on nuclear magnetic resonance.
End life of the Great scientist
Professor Mahmoud Hessaby died on September 3, 1992 (at age 89) in Geneva Cardiac Hospital.






As the Great scientist wished, he was buried in his hometown Tafresh, Iran.
Source: Wikipedia