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Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar


Seyyed Mohammad Hossein Behjat-Tabrizi (Born on 1906), mainly known by his pen name Shahriar, was a legendary Iranian Azerbaijani poem, who wrote in Azerbaijani (Azeri Turkish) and Persian languages. Shahriar, was one of the first Iranian Azeri to write a significant collection of poetry in Turkish language.






He is one of the most famous orators of modern literature in the modern era about whose life and works of his poems feature, experts have spoken in terms of themes and content and opinions coordinate verbal and spiritual aspects. Shahriar was born in 1906 in a village near Tabriz (The Constitutional Revolution, Mashrute). He received his elementary education, including Divan of Hafez, under his father’s supervision. Shahriar’s first formal education was at Motahari (former Mansoor High School) Secondary School in Tabriz. He came to Tehran in 1921 and continued his studies in Dar-ol-Fonoun high school and started studying pathology after graduation from Dar-ol-Fonoun in 1924. He subsequently studied at Darolfonun (former higher education school) in Tehran. Although he studied medicine in college, But he fell in love and he forced by the Shah’s regime to leave studying and go away by fearing him to kill and he had to migrate to Neyshabour, left his studies about a six month before receiving his M.D. degree, and went to Khorasan.






So he dropped out just before getting his diploma and went to Khorasan, where he found a job as a notary public and bank clerk. Shahriar in Tehran wants to marry a girl named Soraya that unfortunately because of political situations, the girl married a minister named Teimurtash. There were a few month to defend his doctoral dissertation, Shahriar was exiled to Nishapur and he quit his studies, where he spent some time with Painter Kamal-ol-Molk, then went to Mashhad. He participated in many literary circle .but when he missed his best friend named shahyad he became sick and return to Tehran. After treatment in a hospital in Tehran, he entered the house of Sufis and Sufism he studied to the final stages of Mysticism. But for some reasons he took refuge to isolation from the ring of dervishes’ meeting Nima in (1941), he wrote The Two Pheasants in romantic style for Nima. After his meeting with Nima, romanticism school poems directly entered into his poems. He tried his talent in new poetry. Shahriar lost his wife and his mother in Tehran. He returned to Tabriz. The last ten years of his life coincided with the onset of the Islamic Revolution of Iran. Although he was old, he did not quit writing and he stood by his fellows with religious beliefs and wrote religious lyric and epic song of patriotism. He appreciated the heads of revolution, and expressed his sincere emotions to them. He returned to Tehran in 1935 and started working in the Agricultural Bank of Iran. Initially he published his poems under his given name, Behjat, but later chose the name Shahriar. Shahriar was the first Iranian to write significant poetry in Azeri Turkish. He published his first book of poems in 1929. To investigate about his literary importance, first the course of his life must be studied. He was famous as a lyric writer.






Fallowing Hafiz Most of his poems are lyrics. Shahriar is among classical poets but not with the prejudices of the old poets and songwriters on their school and poetic style. He does not have all the features of old classics that we know and his works do not fully support modern Nimai style. He is multidimensional In addition to his classic poetry; he had some poems in new style. Nima After getting acquaintance with Nima he was influenced by romanticism and Nimai poetry. . He left many works of poetry in that style like in the heart of pheasant, Mother, Aletterto Einsteinetc. In addition to Hafiz, he followed Molana Rumi, Manoochehri, Saadi, Nizami in his classic works. Shahriar likes classical poetry with new poetry. He believed that poetry either classical or New should have poetry soul. The essence of poetry is its poetic features not only its form and rhythm. In Shahriar view, any poem can be New if it is told in the language of its time. It means that a poet can bring and make use of colloquial and conventional words in his poems. Like Iraj Mirza who has done great service by bringing colloquial expressions into contemporary poetry. (So Simple and Beautiful) Shahriar was contemporaneous fans of old and new styles debate, but he never participated in such disputes .He believed that poets should do their own job instead of mayhem and sought to enrich their works, not rhyme and meter. Poetry is the origina. Any poem without substantive is not a new poem. (So Simple and Beautiful) He wrote modern poetry in an ancient form. Although his poems have the flavor of Hafez lyrics but they were never like the poems of the eighth century. because of being innovative and using every day expressions and vocabulary of contemporary and also a spirit of love and human emotions, various contents, his poems are distinguished from ancient poetry.






As Nima was a legendary inventor and step by step opened new field of literature for the contemporary Persian literature. Shahriar told new concepts and used novel designs for classic poems. To the extent, that he gained the highest achievement in this method. He had created a balance in his poetry. Using the old style and new style, he launched a new convention that it can be taken up as his personal style. The following works are written about Shahriar: This study is important for, it examines Shahriar works in the recent century, which is the most transformative periods of literature. First, with regard to the current century revolution in literary developments and political and historical events and their impacts on Shahriar works, his works has been investigated. The effects of classical and contemporary poets and Shahriar poems, and his effects on the other poets have been studied. The main goals of this article can be; giving an overview of literature developments in the modern age, studying the effects of Western schools and political thought on the works of Persian lyric of the poet, and the influence of ancient and classic styles with new styles on his works and studying Folk Literature, Turkish (Azeri) literature. Shahriar’s poems are mainly influenced by Hafez and Khasta gasem (an old Turkish poet).

The Heart of Froth
My memory is stormy of time passage
My imaginations are posing
Like demoes on the screen
My heart nonsense
We are sat in a circle around Korsi
And my grandmother is telling story
And I am in fairy lands and my poetry blossomed.


Therefore, it would be clear that his style is Iraqi and their content is similar to Iraqi style. Either is both the divine and human beloved .his Poems are generally classified into 2 periods, Shahriar during the first period of passion. The second period he was pulled apart and entered mystical stuff (so simply and beautifully). Third Love that can be found in his poems is considered a kind of friendship and love of man. He praised love for humanity the lyrics and has send his sincere kindness to the entire world. His social Love in the voice of God is evident in every verse of this poem. As it was mentioned above, Shahriar Poems are influenced by Hafez in the terms of rhyme, he has Common terms and phrases With Hafez, and he finished his verses in the same way as Hafez. In addition to Hafez lyrics he was influenced by Nezami. Azerbaijani style influence on his poetry is of literary and rhetorical techniques and style He likes Azerbaijani poets used similes and metaphors, especially like Nezami has used beautiful similes about the style of his poems, especially Masnavi Molana.






Shahriar says: This school composes the spirit and greatness obtained from nature and prevailing in mountainous, with the spirit of grace and courtesy of the civil government and civil society that has its lineage and history before. Characteristics of the school can be found in Nezami works and panels (My Legend of the evening). Also In new poetry, Shahriar was so familiar with Nima and affected by him and learned a fictional fantasy, and wrote Pheasants, but overall it was not just an imitation, as he did not forget ancient style and he was not unaware of it (and the literature of Zarrinkub). His Turkish poetry can be noted as one of his other initiatives. Shahriar’s Turkish poems, especially Hydrbaba Salam using folkloric literature revive Azerbaijan’s Azeri .






His Turkish language lyrics is noble and dynamic. Generally his Turkish poems in the broken meters are much richer than his Persian poetry. In addition to Nima, Shahriar was influenced by Akhavan, Nima winter poem, Fereydoun Moshiri, flood, garden shed, waiting and Love, Ahmad Forgotten Songs in the set, as well as other poets such as Hamidi Shirazi, Khanlari. Another feature is the balance of his poetry in every line of his poetry has independent meaning. This is an important factor that sometimes musicians of his poems make use of to create a piece of music. Especially Shahryar’s poetry shows his knowledge and understanding of the culture and customs Of Iranian and Western idioms and proverbs and sometimes even more than other poets’ poems, he used verbal Interpretations in his sonnets. Ahmad Shamloo believed that it is infelicitous Ghazal’s, believed that the word is not in the car when we speak of prayer and vehicles (and so simply and beautifully) Perhaps this criticism is because of his lack of knowledge about the famous Iranian traditional music and lyrics (to be famous Persian poet methodologies of Ghulam Mohammad Reza Rezaee). Due to popular slang words and full repetition, poems can be easily understood by people. For example: ‘Why you came my unfaithful beloved, Why, now that I am worn out.’ His most famous poem Heydar-Babaya Salam, in Azeri Turkish, is considered to be among the best modern poems in the language and has been turned into a few plays. His most famous Turkish work Heydar Babaya Salam, published in 1954, won the immense affection of both Turkic and Iranian speakers.


Heydar Baba, when the thunder resounds across the skies,
When floods roar down the mountainsides,
And the girls line up to watch it rushing by,
Send my greetings to the tribesmen and the village folk
And remember me and my name once more.


Heydar Baba, when pheasants take flight,
And the rabbits scurry from flowering bush,
When your garden burst into full bloom,
May those who remember us live long
And may our saddened hearts be gladdened.


When the March wind strikes down the bowers,
Primrose and snowdrops appear from the frozen earth,
When the clouds wing their white shirts,
Let us be remembered once again
Let our sorrows rise up like a mountain.


Heydar Baba, let your back bear the mark of the sun.
Let your streams weep and your face beam with smiles.
Let your children put together a bouquet
And send it to us when the wind blows this way
So that, perhaps, our sleepy fortune be awakened.


Haydar Baba, may your brows be bright.
May you be circled by streams and gardens.
And after us, may you live long.
This world is full of misfortunes and losses.
The world is replete with those bereaved of sons and orphaned.


Heydar Baba, my steps never crossed your pass.
My life was spent, becoming too late to visit you
I know not what became of all those beautiful girls.
I never knew about deadends, about paths of “no return”.
I never knew about separation, loss and death.


Heydar Babaya Salam has been translated into more than 30 languages all over the world, especially in Turkic speaking countries. His day of death is named the “national day of poem” in Iran. A television series about his life, directed by Kamal Tabrizi, aired on IRIB channel 2. This passionate poet began by composing tragic poetry. Many of his bittersweet memories are reflected in his books Hazyan-e Del, Heydar Baba, and Mumiyai. Heydar Baba, composed in Azeri Turkish and later translated into Persian, was on the top ten best-seller list in Tehran for a long time. Heydar Baba is the name of a mountain where the poet spent his childhood. He also wrote a book of epic poems, Takht-e Jamshid.






He was interested in humanistic issues and in his poem “A letter to Einstein” he criticized the result of his scientific work that was abused as nuclear weapon. Shahriar’s verses take diverse forms, including lyrics, quatrains, couplets, odes, and elegies. One of his love poems, Hala Chera, was set to music by Rouhollah Khaleghi. The composition for orchestra and solo voice became one of his most well-known works. One of the major reasons for the success of Shahriar’s work is the sincerity of his words.






Since he uses slang and colloquial language in the context of poetry, his poems are understandable and effective for a broad segment of the public. Shahriar was a talented calligrapher, played the setar very well, and had a keen interest in music. He was a very close friend of the Persian musician and highly respected teacher Abdulhossein Saba.






On September 18-1989, suffering from lung disease, he died in Mehr Hospital in Tehran while his contemporary poets like Akhavan, charmed Amini, Fereydoon Moshiri, Simin Behbahani, Shafi’i Kadkani to visit him but his body was transferred to Tabriz and was buried in Maqbaratoshoara (House of Poets).
Source: Wikipedia